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This review focuses on 4 major classes of antibody therapy: (1) naked antibodies purchase malegra fxt 140 mg overnight delivery impotence antonym, (2) T-cell-engaging bispeciﬁc single-chain antibodies purchase 140mg malegra fxt fast delivery erectile dysfunction doctors in pittsburgh, (3) immunoconjugates/immunotoxins buy malegra fxt 140mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction doctors augusta ga, and (4) chimeric antigen receptors cheap malegra fxt 140 mg with visa erectile dysfunction treatment seattle. This area of research represents an exciting new approach to help improve the outcome of this disease. Several clinical trials are currently incorporating this therapy in the treatment of newly diagnosed and relapsed adult ALL patients. Introduction represents an exciting new approach to help improve the outcome of The overall outcome of adults with acute lymphocytic leukemia this disease. The relapse rate remains high and, at the time of relapse, achieving a second remission is difﬁcult, with response Naked antibodies rates in the 20% to 30% range with standard therapy. Therefore, most clinical trials have combined months) despite allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation antibody therapy with chemotherapy. This review focuses on antibody-based therapies in the treatment of precursor Rituximab (pre-) B- and T-cell ALL with a particular emphasis on pre-B-ALL. The chimeric (human/mouse) monoclonal antibody rituximab tar- gets CD20 and kills cells by antibody-dependent cellular and ALL cells express various surface antigens that are targets for complement-mediated cytotoxicity, as well as by the induction of monoclonal antibodies. Favorable antigenic features include a high 8 apoptosis. The CD20 receptor functions as a calcium channel and percentage of blasts expressing the antigen, a high density of 3 inﬂuences cell cycle progression and differentiation via downstream antigen expression, and a lack of expression in normal cells. There- efﬁcacy of the toxins/immunoconjugates, the achievement of ad- fore, increased CD20 expression may lead to dysregulation of these equate dose levels, pharmacokinetics, and the effect of the antibod- 3 pathways and drug resistance, explaining the associated poor ies on the immune system (Table 1). Although only half of pre-B-ALL cases express CD20 on 20% lymphoblasts (the usual cutoff for considering an Eighty percent of ALLs are of the pre-B-cell immunophenotype, antigen to be positive), the presence of CD20 expression has been with more than 90% of cases expressing CD19 and more than 80% associated with a decreased remission duration and worse overall expressing CD22. A second trial, GRAALL-2003, found that have been the focus of many of the treatments discussed below. CD20 expression is the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in nonHodgkin also up-regulated by treatment with chemotherapy. Both leukemia demonstrated that the percentage of blasts with CD20 trials have demonstrated an improvement of relapse-free and overall expression increased from 45% to 81% by day 15. These characteristics controls, demonstrating a potential role for other antibody-based make CD20 an attractive therapeutic target to combine with therapies. In this review, we focus on 4 major classes of antibody therapy for In a study by the GMALL group (7/2003),6 rituximab (375 ALL: (1) naked antibodies, (2) T-cell-engaging bispeciﬁc single- mg/m2/dose) was added to a standard chemotherapy backbone. In chain (BiTE) antibodies, (3) immunoconjugates/immunotoxins, and adult patients 15-55 years of age (N 133) with standard-risk (4) chimeric antigen receptors (Table 2). This area of research CD20 pre-B-ALL, rituximab was administered on day 1 before Hematology 2013 131 Table 1. Factors affecting efﬁcacy of antibody-based therapies Table 3. Percentage of blasts expressing the antigen CD19 Type 1 transmembrane protein of the immunoglobulin 2. Density of antigen expression superfamily; regulates B-cell fate and differentiation 3. Internalization of the antigen upon binding antibody (for immunotoxins CD20 Calcium channel; inﬂuences cell cycle progression and or immunoconjugates) differentiation via downstream signaling pathways that 4. Efﬁcacy of the toxins/immunoconjugates modulate levels of pro-apoptotic proteins 5. Achievement of adequate dose levels CD22 Sialic-acid-binding immunoglobulin-like family of adhesion 6. Effect of the antibodies on the immune system molecules. Regulates B-cell activation and the interaction of B cells with T cells and their APCs CD52 Peptide glycoprotein involved in the induction of CD4 regulatory T cells each induction course and before each of 6 consolidation courses for a total of 8 doses. However, further study will be needed to conﬁrm a of the cytogenetic abnormalities t(4;11) and t(9;22). Compared Epratuzumab with a historical cohort, the rates of CMR (60% vs 19% at day 21; Epratuzumab is a humanized anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody. Similar ﬁndings were demonstrated by rapidly internalized upon antibody or immunotoxin binding,15 Thomas et al. Unlike rituximab, which is cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone) and directly cytotoxic, epratuzumab modulates B-cell activation and days 1 and 8 of methotrexate/cytarabine for 8 doses over the ﬁrst 4 signaling. MRD to older patients ( 60 years of age; n 28), in part related to was measured by ﬂow cytometry (sensitivity 10 4) and CMR was deaths in CR. Ten patients experienced grade 1 or 2 infusion reactions. Two patients had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), 1 Rituximab is currently being evaluated in a randomized study of grade 4 seizure and 1 grade 3 transaminase elevation. In all but one patients with newly diagnosed CD20 Philadelphia-chromosome- patient, surface CD22 was not detected by ﬂow cytometry on periph- negative (Ph ) pre-B-ALL (GRAALL 2005), and the results of this eral blood leukemic blasts within 24 hours of epratuzumab administra- trial will ultimately help to clarify prior observations. Overall, such as GA101 and ofatumumab, will likely lead to further trials in this trial demonstrated acceptable toxicity, efﬁcacy of the targeted this arena. Although the above trials only included patients with approach, and a favorable rate of MRD negativity. CD20 pre-B-ALL, it is possible that rituximab may be beneﬁcial to a larger subgroup of pre-B-ALL patients given that CD20 expres- COG ADVL04P2 was a phase 2 trial to determine whether the sion in lymphoblasts is up-regulated upon initiation of steroids and addition of epratuzumab to a backbone reinduction chemotherapy regimen increased rates of second complete remission (CR2) in patients 2-30 years of age with CD22 ALL in ﬁrst relapse. Advantages/disadvantages of the various antibody different schedules of epratuzumab were evaluated, B1 (weekly 4 approaches doses, n 54) and B2 (twice weekly 8 doses, n 60). The CR Advantages Disadvantages rates in the 2 arms were comparable (65% and 66%, respectively) but not signiﬁcantly higher than historical controls. However, the Naked antibodies Decreased toxicity Limited single-agent activity rate of CMR was higher (42%) than with the backbone chemotherapy BiTE antibodies Increased efﬁcacy; Blinatumomab needs to be 19 well tolerated administered as a regimen (25%; P. This latter point is important because early continuous IV infusion MRD response was a strong predictor for event-free survival in the Immunoconjugates Increased efﬁcacy Potential toxicity due to the previous COG relapsed ALL trial and the kinetic pattern of MRD may conjugate: hematologic/ also be predictive of longer-term outcomes in relapsed ALL. Therefore, liver/VOD (calicheamicin) longer follow-up of these patients will be important. Thirty-two evaluable and cytoreduction prior to eligible patients were treated (median age of 41 years, range 20-68). CD19 is a type I transmem- refractory, and 4 patients (13%) had undergone a prior AHCT. The brane protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily and regulates response rate was 45%, including 8 CRs and 5 CRs with incomplete B-cell fate and differentiation through modulation of the B-cell count recovery (CRi). MRD information was present in only 5 of 13 receptor (Table 3). No additional class of BiTE antibodies and combines a CD3-binding site for T toxicities attributed to antibody were noted. However, the ﬁrst dose cells and a CD19-binding site for B cells. The agent engages T cells of epratuzumab was given on day 7 to decrease the tumor burden for directed lysis of CD19 target cells.
MS drugs addendum: fingolimod 30 of 32 Final Original Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Appendix B cheap 140mg malegra fxt medicare approved erectile dysfunction pump. Excluded studies The following full-text publications were considered for inclusion but failed to meet the criteria for this report discount malegra fxt 140 mg on-line erectile dysfunction and smoking. Oral fingolimod (FTY720) reduces inflammatory activity vs placebo in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: 24 month MRI results from a randomized buy 140 mg malegra fxt with visa other uses for erectile dysfunction drugs, double-blind generic 140 mg malegra fxt free shipping erectile dysfunction caused by anabolic steroids, multicenter phase III study (FREEDOMS) [presentation]. Oral FTY720 (fingolimod) in relapsing multiple sclerosis: impact on patient-reported depression, as measured by the Beck Depression 5 Inventory II in a 6-month, placebo-controlled study. MS drugs addendum: fingolimod 31 of 32 Final Original Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Appendix C. Outcome 5 Bradycardia/AV Moderate NA Direct Imprecise 0. The incidence of bipolar II disorder is higher than that of bipolar I disorder. Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia syndrome is a sometimes disabling condition characterized by chronic, widespread musculoskeletal pain. It is one of the most common conditions treated by rheumatologists. The diagnosis of fibromyalgia is based on clinical history and examination; no diagnostic laboratory or radiologic test exists. The American College of Rheumatology’s diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia require a history of spontaneous pain along the spine and all 4 quadrants of the body for more than 3 months and pain on digital palpation at 11 of 18 tender point sites. Other comorbid conditions are common in patients with fibromyalgia, although they are not part of the American College of Rheumatology diagnostic criteria. These conditions include chronic fatigue syndrome, sleep dysfunction, headaches, mood disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, and neurocognitive disturbances. Under experimental conditions, allodynia and hyperalgesia have been demonstrated in patients with fibromyalgia. These observations of abnormal pain perception support the hypothesis that the etiology of fibromyalgia involves increased central pain sensitization with altered levels or activity of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, such as substance P. The underlying cause of fibromyalgia remains unknown. Migraine Prophylaxis Migraine is a common and disabling neurological disorder affecting approximately 6% of men and 15% to 18% of women in the United States and other industrialized countries; many cases 2-4 are undiagnosed or undertreated. It is a chronic condition that usually affects children and young to middle-aged adults, and its repeated acute attacks cause considerable disability, loss of 2, 4 work, and disruption of daily functioning. Treatment of migraines includes both preventive and acute drug therapies. Preventive treatment aims to reduce frequency, severity, and duration of attacks and to improve responsiveness to acute treatment, reduce disability, improve patient functioning, and reduce the 2, 3 overall cost of treating migraine. Studies suggest that approximately one-third of migraine 3 sufferers ought to use preventive therapy, but only 3% to 13% currently do. Preventive treatment should generally be considered for patients (1) who have with frequent migraines (2 or more per month); (2) who have prolonged or severe attacks; (3) who experience intolerable adverse events with acute therapy; (4) in whom acute medication is contraindicated; (5) who have been unresponsive to acute therapy; (6) who are at risk of overusing acute mediations (taken more than twice per week); or (7) who have uncommon migraine conditions, including 2, 4 hemiplegic migraine, migraine with prolonged aura, or migrainous infarction. When preventive therapy is prescribed, it should be given an adequate trial of at least 6 weeks at the Antiepileptic drugs Page 7 of 117 Final Report Update 2 Drug Effectiveness Review Project maximally tolerated dose; however, the full benefit of the medication may not be attained for 6 3 months on this dose. Chronic Pain Chronic pain is often defined as pain that persists or progresses for longer than 3 to 6 months. Chronic pain may begin as acute pain associated with a specific injury or condition, but it outlasts the expected period needed for the body to heal. Also included in the chronic category is pain associated with cancer, degenerative conditions, neuropathies, and other illnesses. In some cases, chronic pain lacks an identifiable physical cause. Intensity of chronic pain can range from mild to severe and can become a source of significant disability for its sufferers. Chronic pain can also lead to other psychosocial difficulties, including depression, fatigue, poor sleep, and reduced functional capacity and quality of life. In the United States chronic pain has long been recognized as a major public health concern. According to findings from multiple studies done in North America, Europe, and 5 Australia, the prevalence of chronic pain has been estimated to range from 10% to 55%. According to the National Institutes of Health, the American public spends over $100 billion annually on the combined expenses of medical care, lost workdays, and litigation associated with chronic pain. Scales and Tests Used to Measure Outcomes In patients with bipolar disorder, migraine, fibromyalgia, and chronic pain, outcomes are measured using a variety of rating scales. For the sake of brevity we reported results using common acronyms for outcomes rating scales. The full names of the rating scales are listed in Appendix A. Terms commonly used in reports produced by the Drug Effectiveness Review Project, such as statistical terms, are defined as they apply to these reports in Appendix B. Purpose and Limitations of Systematic Reviews Systematic reviews, also called evidence reviews, are the foundation of evidence-based practice. A systematic review focuses on the strength and limits of evidence from studies about the effectiveness of a clinical intervention. Systematic reviews begin with a careful formulation of research questions. The goal is to select questions that are important to patients and clinicians, then to examine how well the scientific literature answers those questions. Systematic reviews emphasize the patient’s perspective in the choice of outcome measures used to answer research questions. Studies that measure health outcomes (events or conditions that the patient can feel, such as fractures, functional status, and quality of life) are emphasized over studies of intermediate outcomes (such as change in bone density). Reviews also emphasize measures that are easily interpreted in a clinical context. Specifically, measures of absolute risk or the probability of disease are preferred to measures such as relative risk. The difference in absolute risk between interventions depends on the number of events in both groups, such that the difference (absolute risk reduction) is smaller when there are fewer events. In contrast, the difference in relative risk is fairly constant across groups with different baseline risk for the event, such that the difference (relative risk reduction) is similar across these groups. Relative risk reduction is often more impressive than the absolute risk reduction. Another useful measure is the number needed to treat (or harm).
Their function is to ﬁx the hyoid bone so that the suprahyoid down behind and slightly to the left of the trachea discount malegra fxt 140mg fast delivery impotence age 40. Their main importance lies in their close laryngeal nerve is in the groove between the oesophagus and trachea relation to the thyroid gland purchase 140mg malegra fxt impotence vs erectile dysfunction. The thyroid gland The trachea The thyroid is an endocrine gland with an extremely rich blood supply The trachea begins at the level of the cricoid cartilage and ends by (Fig discount malegra fxt 140 mg fast delivery erectile dysfunction after testosterone treatment. Its isthmus lies across the 3rd cheap 140mg malegra fxt fast delivery erectile dysfunction medication south africa, 4th and 5th rings of the tra- dividing into left and right bronchi at the level of the manubriosternal chea and the lobes lie on either side, reaching up as far as the ‘pocket’ joint. The trachea can be palpated in the midline just above the sup- under the attachment of sternothyroid to the thyroid cartilage. It is rasternal notch and can be seen in an X-ray as a dark shadow. The upper enclosed in the thin pretracheal fascia and also has its own ﬁbrous part of the trachea is crossed by the isthmus of the thyroid. When the gland is enlarged, the strap muscles are stretched bronchi and lungs develop from a groove in the ﬂoor of the embryonic tightly over it and the carotid sheath is displaced laterally. An important pharynx which normally separates off except at the upper end. Anomal- diagnostic feature is that swellings of the thyroid move on swallowing. It divides into two branches which run down the posterior border and The infrahyoid (‘strap’) muscles along the upper border. It is thus possible to tie all four arteries during subtotal • Sternohyoid: is superﬁcial to the other two and runs from the thyroidectomy and still leave an adequate blood supply to the manubrium to the lower border of the hyoid. They (thyroglossal duct) in the position of the future foramen caecum of the are about the size of a pea and are embedded in the back of the thyroid tongue. It descends ventral to the larynx before dividing into two lobes. They develop from the third (inferior parathy- The stem of the outgrowth, the thyroglossal duct, normally disappears roid) and fourth (superior parathyroid) pharyngeal pouches of the although it may remain in part. The thymus also develops from the third pouch and may drag where along the course of the duct or thyroglossal cysts may appear. Infection of a persistent thyroglossal duct may occur, when the duct must be excised. The oesophagus and trachea and the thyroid gland 143 65 The upper part of the neck and the submandibular region Hypoglossal nerve Internal jugular vein Internal carotid artery Occipital artery Glossopharyngeal nerve Spinal accessory nerve Superior laryngeal nerve Vagus nerve Hypoglossal nerve C2 Lingual artery Internal laryngeal nerve C3 External laryngeal nerve Superior ramus of ansa cervicalis Fig. The contents of the submandibular • The glossopharyngeal runs forwards, across the internal carotid region include: artery but deep to the external carotid (p. On its surface lies the anterior belly of the digastric • The spinal root of the accessory runs backwards, crossing the inter- muscle, and the two have the same nerve supply (the mylohyoid nerve). The branches and distribution of these nerves have already the hyoglossus. Suspended from it is the which enters through the foramen ovale and immediately breaks up submandibular ganglion, in which parasympathetic ﬁbres from the into branches (Chapter 57). The lingual nerve carries sensory ﬁbres from the anter- • The medial and lateral pterygoid muscles: the medial pterygoid is ior two-thirds of the tongue as well as taste ﬁbres which are carried in inserted into the inner surface of the ramus and thus separates the the chorda tympani. The lateral pterygoid runs backwards from the lateral pterygoid then runs forwards on the hyoglossus, below the lingual nerve, to enter plate to the neck of the mandible and the intra-articular disc. The maxillary artery leaves by belly of the digastric, extending up as far as the mylohyoid line. From this the submandibular with an intra-articular disc but, unlike most other synovial joints, the (Wharton’s) duct travels forwards to enter the mouth at the sublingual articular cartilage and the disc are composed of ﬁbrocartilage or even papilla near the midline. The duct is crossed by the lingual nerve which ﬁbrous tissue. The lateral pterygoid muscle can pull the disc and the then passes deep to the nerve to enter the tongue. The facial artery is head of the mandible forwards onto the articular eminence. This occurs embedded in the posterior part of the gland before turning down, when the mouth is opened so that the joint is not a simple hinge joint. The mouth is opened by gravity and the suprahyoid muscles line. Its upper surface is covered by the mucous membrane of the such as mylohyoid and geniohyoid and closed by the masseter, tem- mouth and its numerous ducts open onto a ridge in the ﬂoor of the poralis and medial pterygoid. When the mouth is open and the head of mouth extending back from the sublingual papilla. The upper part of the neck and the submandibular region 145 66 The mouth, palate and nose Fungiform papillae Filiform papillae Vallate papillae Foramen caecum Palatoglossal fold Lingual lymphatic Fig. They separate the mouth from the oropharynx and between horizontal plate of the palatine bone. The soft palate hangs like a cur- them is the tonsillar fossa. The nerve supply of the pharynx Muscles The pharyngeal plexus is a plexus of nerves formed by: • Levator palati: elevates the palate. These two muscles move the soft root of the accessory. This provides the motor supply to the muscles palate so that it moves towards the back wall of the oropharynx where except for the tensor palati which is supplied by the mandibular divi- it meets a part of the superior constrictor which contracts strongly sion of the trigeminal. The mouth and nasal cavi- • The glossopharyngeal nerve, which provides the sensory supply to ties are thus separated so that food does not regurgitate into the nose the pharynx. They raise two ridges, the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal nasopalatine nerves from the maxillary division of the trigeminal arches, that are also called the anterior and posterior pillars of the (Fig. These nerves also supply the inner surface of the gums. Posterior one third by the glossopharyngeal • The tonsil: a mass of lymphatic tissue lying in the tonsillar fossa nerve. A small part of the tongue near the epiglottis is supplied by the which, like the rest of the lymphatic system, reaches its maximum size internal laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve. Lateral to the tonsil is its ﬁbrous capsule and the superior Since the anterior part of the tongue develops from a pair of lingual constrictor. It is supplied by the tonsillar branch of the facial artery swellings, the nerves and blood vessels of each side of the tongue do not but the bleeding that occurs after tonsillectomy is usually from the cross the midline (although some lymphatics do) so that a midline inci- paratonsillar vein. The pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid) has already sion will not do any serious damage. If the motor supply is cut off on been mentioned and there is also a lingual tonsil lying in the back of one side, the tongue will diverge to the affected side when protruded the tongue. The permanent teeth comprise two The boundaries of the nasal cavity include the: incisors, a canine, two premolars and three molars.
For these reasons generic malegra fxt 140mg line impotence 17 year old male, dently conﬁrmed that the reagent and instrument being used are routine measurement of anticoagulant effect in an asymptomatic adequately sensitive purchase 140mg malegra fxt with mastercard erectile dysfunction drugs pictures. It has been suggested that coagulation laboratories leads many physicians to avoid prescribing TSOACs buy 140mg malegra fxt otc erectile dysfunction vacuum therapy. Hematolo- should perform dose-response studies using calibration standards to gists are especially sensitive to this issue because cheap 140 mg malegra fxt amex erectile dysfunction at the age of 21, in the absence of determine whether their clotting time(s) can reliably detect the evidence-based guidelines, it is the hematologist who will often be presence of any of the TSOACs. However, even if a particular consulted about how best to manage TSOAC-associated major laboratory has determined that its traditional clotting assays are bleeding. Although this lack of an antidote for the TSOACs is sufﬁciently sensitive to exclude the presence of a particular certainly not a trivial concern, I present several reasons why it TSOAC, the correlation between PT, PTT, or TT prolongation and should not play a major role in the decision to use or not use a intensity of TSOAC effect is poor (A. The plasma concentration (and anticoagulant effect) of these For many patients with TSOAC-associated bleeding, TSOACs can be estimated using more specialized testing. For an antidote would not be used even it were available example, the amount of dabigatran present correlates well with a In patients with normal renal function, the anticoagulant effect of a modiﬁed TT in which patient plasma is diluted with normal TSOAC will dissipate very rapidly after the drug is discontinued. Although the RE-LY clinical trial be available in all laboratories and may have turnaround times that protocol listed prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) and recom- reduce their clinical utility. Proportion of patients who experienced a key clinical end point during the 30 days after a procedure and/or temporary interruption of study medication 30-day event rates (%) RE-LY14 ROCKET-AF15 ARISTOTLE16 Dabigatran* Warfarin Rivaroxaban Warfarin Apixaban Warfarin Stroke or systemic embolism 0. For example, in the ARISTOTLE trial, 1/3ofprocedureswereperformedwithoutstudydruginterruption. Crude rates of fatal (or life-threatening) bleeding from phase III trials comparing a TSOAC to standard therapy (usually warfarin) Fatal bleeding (no. That notwithstanding, there are is indirect evidence that, in the majority of nearly 400 cases of other reasons why a VKA may be preferred: cost, presence of a dabigatran-related major bleeding, the treating physician saw no prosthetic heart valve, concerns about adherence, and extremes of need to escalate beyond supportive care such as RBC transfusion, body weight. Advanced kidney disease should lead the clinician to volume support, etc. Although this difference is partly explained by the 50% heim, and CSL Behring. For David Garcia, MD, Division of Hematology, University of Washing- dabigatran 150 mg BID and rivaroxaban 20 mg QD, the end point of ton School of Medicine, Box 357710, 1705 NE Paciﬁc Street, gastrointestinal bleeding occurred more frequently among those on Seattle, WA 98195-7710; Phone: (206)543-3360; Fax: (206) 543- a TSOAC vs those on warfarin. Despite these differences and despite 3560; e-mail: davidg99@uw. Furthermore, a prespeciﬁed References analysis of data from ARISTOTLE shows that the combination of 1. Apixaban in patients with bleeding followed by death within 30 days occurred signiﬁcantly more 29 atrial ﬁbrillation. Dabigatran versus warfarin 1000 patients with a ﬁrst major bleed in the RE-LY trial, 30-day in patients with atrial ﬁbrillation. Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in Evidence that the rapid “reversal” of VKA effect will nonvalvular atrial ﬁbrillation. Oral apixaban for the treatment of Although IV vitamin K can, in combination with PCC, restore the acute venous thromboembolism. INR of most warfarin-treated patients to a normal value within 6. Apixaban for extended treatment minutes,30 10% of patients hospitalized for warfarin-associated of venous thromboembolism. Dabigatran versus warfarin in can reduce the INR much faster than fresh-frozen plasma, the the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism. Extended use of dabigatran, difference in mortality or time to hemostasis between the PCC and warfarin, or placebo in venous thromboembolism. Oral rivaroxaban for the mortality difference is explained by a lack of statistical power and treatment of symptomatic pulmonary embolism. Oral rivaroxaban for by the numerous comorbidities known to be associated with major symptomatic venous thromboembolism. Edoxaban versus warfarin importance of avoiding anticoagulant-related bleeding in the ﬁrst for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism. Edoxaban versus Warfarin ment of direct factor Xa inhibitors: anti-Xa assay is preferable to in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation. Outcomes of discontinu- chromogenic anti-Xa assay and PT tests with LC-MS/MS for the ing rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in patients with nonvalvular therapeutic monitoring of patients treated with rivaroxaban. Thromb atrial ﬁbrillation: analysis from the ROCKET AF trial (Rivaroxaban Haemost. Once-Daily, Oral, Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared With Vitamin 25. Measurement K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial of dabigatran and rivaroxaban in primary prevention of venous thrombo- Fibrillation). Periprocedural bleeding and surgery: an observational study. Effect of apixaban, an oral (RE-LY) randomized trial. Sherwood MW, Douketis JD, Patel MR, et al; ROCKET AF Investigators. The effect of dabigatran plasma ban once daily, oral, direct factor Xa inhibition compared with vitamin K concentrations and patient characteristics on the frequency of ischemic stroke and major bleeding in atrial ﬁbrillation patients: the RE-LY Trial antagonism for prevention of stroke and embolism trial in atrial ﬁbrillation (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy). Management and outcomes in patients undergoing invasive procedures: insights from ARISTOTLE of major bleeding during treatment with dabigatran or warfarin. Major bleeding in patients with tests in patients on therapeutic doses of rivaroxaban: a cross-sectional atrial ﬁbrillation receiving apixaban or warfarin: the ARISTOTLE Trial pharmacodynamic study based on peak and trough plasma levels. Evaluation of coagulation 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate in patients on vitamin K assays versus LC-MS/MS for determinations of dabigatran concentra- antagonists presenting with major bleeding: a randomized, plasma- tions in plasma. Clinical impact of bleeding in tests in patients on therapeutic doses of dabigatran: a cross-sectional patients taking oral anticoagulant therapy for venous thromboembolism: pharmacodynamic study based on peak and trough plasma levels. Dabigatran etexilate–a novel, gastrointestinal tract bleeding: beneﬁt or bias? JAMA Intern reversible, oral direct thrombin inhibitor: interpretation of coagulation Med. Monroe2 1Department of Pathology, Duke University and Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Centers, Durham, NC; and 2Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC Dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban are orally active anticoagulants that are approved in many countries. Dabigatran inhibits thrombin, whereas rivaroxaban and apixaban are factor Xa inhibitors. In clinical trials, these novel oral anticoagulants were at least as effective as warfarin for preventing stroke in patients with atrial ﬁbrillation, but with a lower rate of serious bleeding. However, the lack of true antidotes for these agents has caused concern when patients suffer life-threatening bleeding or trauma or require emergent invasive procedures. True antidotes are under development for all of these agents. In the meantime, activated and nonactivated prothrombin complex concentrates have been used as reversal agents. Factor VIIa may also be effective for reversal of the factor Xa inhibitors. Reversal of novel oral anticoagulants by these hemostatic agents has not been studied in bleeding human patients, so their true efﬁcacy and appropriate dosing are not known.
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