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With appropriate diagnosis and selection of drugs purchase 60caps shuddha guggulu visa weight loss 50 pounds, four out of five cases of epilepsy can be controlled adequately generic shuddha guggulu 60caps without a prescription weight loss pills excedrin, but it may take the provider time to find the best drug or combination of drugs with which to treat the client order shuddha guggulu 60 caps without prescription weight loss 3 weeks postpartum. However shuddha guggulu 60 caps online weight loss 30 day challenge, trauma or emotional stress may necessitate an increase in drug dosage requirements (if the patient requires surgery and starts having seizures). If there is reason to substitute one anticonvulsant for another, withdraw the first drug at the same time the dosage of the second drug is being increased. Be prepared, in case of acute oral toxicity, to assist with inducing emesis (provided the patient is not comatose) and with gastric lavage, along with other supportive measures such as administration of fluids and oxygen. Document seizure classification (partial or generalized), frequency/severity of seizures, noting location, duration, consciousness, type, frequency and any precipitating factors, presence of an aura, and any other characteristics. Determine why the patient is receiving therapy, if no seizures for over 1 year with prophylactic therapy. Observe for muscle twitching, loss of muscle tone, episodes of bizarre behavior, and/or subsequent amnesia. With Phenytoin (Dilantin - anticonvulsant), check calcium levels - contributes to bone demineralization, which can result in osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children - risk increases with inactivity. Do not increase, decrease, or discontinue without approval from your Physician, seizures may result. May initially cause a decrease in mental alertness, drowsiness, headache, vertigo, and ataxia. Vitamin D may be prescribed to prevent hypocalcemia (4,000 units of vitamin D weekly), folic acid may prevent megaloblastic anemia. Increase fluid intake and include fruit and other foods with roughage and bulk in the diet. If slurred speech develops, try to consciously slow speech patterns to avoid the problem. Avoid situations/exposures that result in fever and low glucose and sodium levels, may lower seizure threshold. Report if rash, fever, severe headache, stomatitis, rhinitis, urethritis, balanitis (inflammation of the glans penis) occur, signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity - requires possible change in the drug. Report sore throat, easy bruising, bleeding, or nosebleeds, which could be signs of hematology toxicity. Report jaundice, dark urine, anorexia, and abdominal pain, which may indicate liver toxicity. Identify support groups that may assist to understand and cope with the disorder (Epilepsy Foundation: National Head Injury Group). For children 6 to 12: initially, 100 mg oral twice a day (tablets or extended release tablets) or 50 mg suspension oral four times a day with meals, increased at weekly intervals by up to 100 mg 56 orally divided in three or four doses daily (divided twice a day for extended release form). Usual maintenance is 400 mg to 800 mg daily; or 20 mg/kg to 30 mg/kg in divided doses three or four times daily. Children older than 12 and adults: initially 200 mg oral twice a day (tablets or extended release tablets), or 100 mg four times a day of suspension with meals. May be increased weekly by 200 mg orally daily in divided doses at 12 hour intervals for extended release tablets or six to eight hours intervals for tablets or suspension, adjusted to minimum effective level. Maximum, 1000 mg daily in children ages 12 to 15 and 1200 mg daily in children older than 15. Available forms are: capsules 100 mg, 200 mg, and 300 mg; oral suspension 100 mg/5 ml; tablets 200 mg; tablets (chewable) 100 mg and 200 mg; tablets (extended release) 100 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg and 400 mg. The peak time for oral route is 1½ to 12 hours and the peak time for the extended release tablets is 4 to 8 hours. Nursing Consideration: Atracurium, Cisatracurium, Pancuronium, Rocuronium, Vecuronium (all neuromuscular blocking agents) may decrease the effects of nondepolarizing muscle relaxant, causing it to be less effective. Capsules and tablets should not be crushed or chewed, unless labeled as chewable form. Tell patient taking suspension form to shake container well before measuring dose. Some formulations may harden when exposed to excessive moisture, so that less is available in the body, decreasing seizure control. Advise him to avoid hazardous activities until effects disappear, usually within three or four days. Available forms are: capsules 250 mg; syrup 200 mg/5 ml; tablets (crushable) 100 mg; tablets (enteric coated) 200 mg and 500 mg); capsules (sprinkles) 125 mg; tablets (delayed release) 125 mg, 250 mg and 500 mg; tablets (extended release) 250 mg and 500 mg). Nursing Considerations: Aspirin, Chlorpromazine (Thorazine – antipsychotic), 61 Cimetadine (Tagamet – stomach), Erythromycin (antibiotic), Felbamate (Felbatol - anticonvulsant) may cause Depakote (anticonvulsant) toxicity. Monitor patient for seizure activity and toxicity during therapy and for at least 1 month after stopping either drug. If these symptoms occur during therapy, notify Physician at once because patient who might be developing hepatic dysfunction must stop taking drug. Initially, 100 mg orally three times a day, increasing by 100 mg orally every 2 to 4 weeks until desired response is obtained. If patient is stabilized with extended release capsules, once daily dosing with 300 mg extended release capsules is 65 possible as an alternative. Available forms are: oral suspension 125 mg/5ml; tablets (chewable); capsules (extended) 30 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg and 300 mg; capsules 100 mg; injection 50mg/ml. Nursing Considerations: Acetaminophen may decrease the therapeutic effects of Acetaminophen and increase the incidence the hepatotoxicity. Monitor Cyclosporine (immunosuppressant) levels closely and adjust dose as needed. May decrease urinary 17 hydroxysteroid, 17 ketosteroid, and hemoglobin levels and hematocrit. If megaloblastic anemia is evident, Physician may order folic acid and vitamin B12. Dilantin (anticonvulsant) tablets and oral suspension should never be given once daily. Surgical removal of excess gum tissue may be needed periodically if dental hygiene is poor. Total daily nd dose may be increased thereafter by 4 mg at beginning of 2 week and thereafter by 4 mg to 8 mg per week until clinical response or up to 32 mg daily. Total daily dose may be increased by 4 to 8 mg at weekly intervals until clinical response or up to 56 mg daily. Nursing Considerations: Carbamazepine (Tegretol), Phenobarbital, Phenytoin (Dilantin) all anticonvulsants, may increase Gabitril (anticonvulsant) clearance. Increase dose by 10mg/kg twice a day at 2 week intervals to recommended dose of 30 mg/kg twice a day. Increase dosage by 500 mg as needed for seizure control at 2 - week intervals to maximum of 1500 mg twice a day.
Rejection towards one another order shuddha guggulu 60caps free shipping weight loss pills cheap effective, forming a stain- of transplanted cells by host tissue order shuddha guggulu 60 caps visa weight loss pills no workout. Mutations in the germ line purchase shuddha guggulu 60caps online weight loss shakes, un- Hypervariable region: The three most like somatic mutations purchase shuddha guggulu 60caps fast delivery weight loss 10000 steps, are inherited variable segments present within the by progeny. Heterologous: Belonging to another spe- Immunity: Actively or passively acquired cies. High responder: Individuals (or inbred Immunofluorescence: Rendering certain strains) whichexhibit a strong immune antigens visible by binding of a specific response against a defined antigen. This gene complex codes for the Intron: The gene segment present be- most important transplantation anti- tween two exons. An in-vi- Low responder: Individuals (or inbred tro assay which measures the stimula- strains) which exhibit a weak immune tion response of lymphocytes as allor- response against a given antigen. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license Glossary 143 that are either virally infected or tu- Pseudoalleles: Tandem variants of a gene, morous. Paratope: The part of an antibody mole- Recombination: A process by which ge- cule which contacts the antigenic de- netic information is rearranged during terminant (epitope); the antigen-bind- meiosis. Secretory piece: An IgA-associated poly- Primary lymphoid tissues: Thymus, bur- peptide produced by epithelial cells, sa of Fabricius (in birds), bone marrow. Suppressor cell: A proposed antigen-spe- Thy: A cell surface antigen of mouse T cific T-cell subpopulation which acts to cells; there are several allelic variants reduce the immune responses of other of this marker. Tolerance: A state of specific immunologi- Syngeneic: Animals produced by re- cal unresponsiveness. Kayser The Morphology and Fine Structure of Bacteria 3 & Bacterial cells are between 0. The cytoplasmic membrane harbors numerous proteins such as permeases, cell wall synthesis enzymes, sensor proteins, secretion system proteins, and, in aerobic bacteria, respiratory chain enzymes. The membrane is surrounded by the cell wall, the most important element of which is the supporting murein skeleton. The cell wall of Gram-negative bac- teria features a porous outer membrane into the outer surface of which the lipopolysaccharide responsible for the pathogenesis of Gram-negative infec- tions is integrated. Its murein layer is thicker and contains teichoic acids and wall-associated proteins that contribute to the pathogenic process in Gram-positive infections. Many bacteria have capsules made of polysac- charides that protect them from phagocytosis. Foreign body infections are caused by bacteria that form a biofilm on inert surfaces. Some bacteria produce spores, dormant forms that are highly resistant to chemical and physical noxae. Magnifications of 500– 1000Â—close to the resolution limits of light microscopy—are required to obtain useful images of bacteria. Another problem is that the structures of objects the size of bacteria offer little visual contrast. Techniques like phase contrast and dark field microscopy, both of which allow for live cell observa- tion, are used to overcome this difficulty. Gram-positive cocci with capsules (sporulation) in cells of the (pneumococci) genera Bacillus and 4. Gram-positive, clubshaped, Clostridium (spore stain) pleomorphic rods (corynebacteria) a) Central spore, vegetative 5. Gram-negative rods with pointed cell shows no swelling ends (fusobacteria) b) Terminal spore, vegetative 6. Gram-negative curved rods cell shows no swelling (here commashaped vibrios) c) Terminal spore (“tennis 7. Gram-negative diplococci, adjacent racquet”) sides flattened (neisseria) d) Central spore, vegetative 8. Gram-negative straight rods with cell shows swelling rounded ends (coli bacteria) e) Terminal spore 9. Spiral rods (spirilla) and Gram-negative (“drumstick”) curved rods (Helicobacter) 14. Free spores (spore stain) Kayser, Medical Microbiology © 2005 Thieme All rights reserved. Two stains with differing affinities to different bac- teria are used in differential staining techniques, the most important of which is gram staining. Gram-positive bacteria stain blue-violet, Gram-negative bacteria stain red (see p. Three basic forms are observed in bacteria: spherical, straight rods, and curved rods (see Figs. The plasmids of human pathogen bacteria often bear important genes determining the phenotype of their cells (resistance genes, virulence genes). The 4-quinolones, an important group of anti-infection substances, inactivate these enzymes irreversibly. The cytoplasm is also frequently used to store reserve substances (glycogen depots, poly- merized metaphosphates, lipids). Secretion Four secretion systems differing in structure and mode of action system proteins have been described to date. A common feature of all four is the formation of protein cylinders that traverse the cytoplasmic membrane and, in Gram-negative bacteria, the outer cell wall membrane as well. Sensor proteins Transmit information from the cell’s environment into its inte- (also known as rior. The so-called receiver domain extends outward, the trans- signal proteins) mitter domain inward. The transmission activity is regulated by the binding of signal molecules to a receiver module. In two- component systems, the transmitter module transfers the infor- mation to a regulator protein, activating its functional module. This regulator segment can then bind to specificgene sequences and activate or deactivate one or more genes (see also Fig. Aerobic respiration chain enzymes functions according to the same principles as cellular respiration in eurkaryotes. The Cytoplasmic Membrane This elementary membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is typical of living cells. It is basically a double layer of phospholipids with numerous proteins integrated into its structure. The most important of these membrane Kayser, Medical Microbiology © 2005 Thieme All rights reserved. In electron microscopic images of Gram-positive bacteria, the mesosomes appear as structures bound to the membrane. Cell Wall The tasks of the complex bacterial cell wall are to protect the protoplasts from external noxae, to withstand and maintain the osmotic pressure gradient be- tween the cell interior and the extracellular environment (with internal pres- sures as high as 500–2000 kPa), to give the cell its outer form and to facilitate communication with its surroundings. The most important structural element of the wall is murein, a netlike polymer material surrounding the entire cell (sacculus). The murein sacculus may consist of as many as 40 layers (15–80 nm thick) and account for as much as Kayser, Medical Microbiology © 2005 Thieme All rights reserved.
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Body mass index is commonly used to assess obesity that is caused by an energy imbalance ("Overweight and obesity" buy discount shuddha guggulu 60 caps on-line weight loss 5 lbs per week, n buy discount shuddha guggulu 60caps on line weight loss 5 htp. This energy imbalance occurs when the amount of ―energy in‖ is not balanced with the amount of ―energy out‖ of the body generic shuddha guggulu 60 caps visa weight loss 2016. For instance shuddha guggulu 60caps free shipping weight loss pills at walmart, excess caloric intake from food and drinks along with physical inactivity over time will result in overweight/obesity ("Overweight and obesity", n. The current study findings of this Black female sample are consistent with the literature (Roger et al. Lack of weight control may be indicative of lack of control in other aspects of life. Perceived discrimination because of physical characteristics toward overweight/obese clients is similar to prejudices held against women due to race or gender. In comparison to Blacks, perceptions of this nature may be a reality as evidenced by disparate health care. The cost of medications has been reported as a frequent barrier to medication adherence, especially for low income clients. Even low prescription copayments can be problematic for Medicare and Medicaid recipients (Munger et al. Contrary to popular opinion, Blacks are thought to value other items, such as cellular telephones, as more affordable than antihypertensive medications. Many are not aware that cellular telephones are essentially free to low-income consumers through a federal program that subsidizes providers to supply up to 250 free minutes of cellular telephone use monthly. The Federal Communications Commission‘s Lifeline Assistance and Link-Up program was initiated in 1996 to provide discounts for landline telephones and upgraded to mobile telephones during the G. Biased information concerning the client‘s use or misuse 162 of economic resources that could aid adherence to the treatment regimen may contribute to stereotypes that may ultimately influence the quality of health care delivered. When clients cannot afford to purchase medications, it is not an uncommon practice to alter the medication dosage or schedule to make medications last a longer period of time. Low income and high out of pocket cost contribute to this behavior (Steinman, Sands, & Covinsky, 2001). This study found no statistically significant association between income and medication adherence. Over 75% of participants in this study reported they could afford their medications all of the time. Interestingly, nonadherence to antihypertensive medications was noted among one fifth of participants who reported income levels ranging from $45,000 to an excess of $100,000. Despite adequate resources participants were nonadherent to their antihypertensive medications. Thus, a sufficient income level with the ability to afford medications was not an assurance of medication adherence in this sample. Nonadherence was also noted in a randomized controlled intervention study (Martin et al. A population of predominately low income Black clients (95%) living in a rural setting were nonadherent to medication-taking even though free antihypertensive medications were provided. Although individual-level factors, such as confidence building and modification of beliefs and behaviors were implemented, the authors noted this was not enough to improve adherence to antihypertensive medications. The authors concluded 163 that there are factors other than the ability to afford medications that influence medication adherence behaviors. This study suggests that health care providers need to assess individual client dynamics to determine the factors that contribute medication adherence. For those who are employed, the type of health care coverage is primarily limited to the policy offered by employers. One type of plan, high- deductible health plan, attracts those who are young, healthy, and low-cost users. Clients who are older and sicker generally choose the traditional plans that become more expensive with long term use or the high-deductible health plan resulting in less care initially, then higher morbidity and increased overall health care costs later (Waters, Chang, Cecil, Kasteridis, & Mirvis, 2011). Government health programs, such as Medicaid and Medicare, were created primarily to cover single parent families and the elderly. However, services in both of these programs have expanded to provide indigent care (Kovner & Knickman, 2008). People who are uninsured generally rely on free clinics, health departments, and hospital emergency departments for health care (Kovner & Knickman, 2008) and may be less adherent to a medication regimen. In the current study, there was no statistically significant association between type of health coverage and medication adherence. Study results indicated that over 80% of participants had health insurance through employers or were covered through health programs such as Medicaid and Medicare. The economic recession in the United States affected employment opportunities for 15% of the participants in this study. If government health plans were nonexistent, one-fourth of this sample would not have had 164 a health care plan. This would have increased the number of uninsured persons and increased the burden of indigent health care to emergency departments. Medications are one of the primary treatments for chronic diseases and the costs continue to escalate. The effects of these policy changes 18 months later revealed a substantial decrease in medication adherence in clients with chronic diseases. The most pronounced barrier to adherence was frequent trips to the pharmacy for refills, not cost of medications. Although these policy changes resulted in government cost savings, the long-term clinical effects of medication nonadherence with worsening disease states requiring increased hospitalizations have not yet been realized. Clients may be motivated to preserve those freedoms (Fogarty, 1997) by not adhering to the treatment regimen. Because of their historical legacy of slavery and racial discrimination, Blacks may view freedoms differently than other races and make greater efforts to reserve those freedoms. In addition, men were noted to have higher reactance scores than women possibly due to women‘s socialization to be more submissive. Thus, reactance may be an intrinsic variable associated with medication adherence. The relationship between reactance and medication adherence was not statistically significant in this study. One explanation for the lack of reactant behaviors was that the design of the tool may not have captured the intrinsic motivation that Black women possess due to their unique psychological complexities. Although the reactance tool was designed to identify clients who may need additional help in adhering to the treatment regimen, its use with Black women was not previously established. No known studies have investigated reactant behaviors in Black women as related to medication adherence. Because very little is known about the psychology make-up of Black women and the challenges they face in various aspects of their lives, they are oftentimes misjudged, misunderstood, and even labeled as mythical creatures (Jones & Shorter-Gooden, 2003). Although this tool has merit, further development and research are needed to capture psychological reactance in Black women. In the current study, no significant correlations were found in the reactance scores of younger women or older women. Studies focused on refining the instrument and including increased numbers of younger women may provide clarity on the role of reactance to medication adherence.
PatientñTreatm ent M atching 91 Patients W ith Housing cheap shuddha guggulu 60 caps overnight delivery weight loss tips for men, Fam ily generic shuddha guggulu 60 caps visa noom weight loss coach, treatment options for patients with disabilities (Fiellin and OíConnor 2002; Greenfield et al cheap 60 caps shuddha guggulu overnight delivery weight loss 80 diet. Such discussions or dysfunctional family relationships should balance the medical needs of these patients and the safety issues involved in pro- ï Poor social skills and lack of a supportive viding take-home medications for patients with social network disabilities who continue to engage in substance ï Unemployment; lack of employable skills safe shuddha guggulu 60 caps weight loss 10 000 steps day. Case peer affiliations, and aspects of the ìyouth management duties should include arrange- cultureî require staff training and special ments for provision of psychosocial care when expectations from both staff and patients. These youth may be more dif- tions for these patients usually include voca- ficult to evaluate, because, as a result of other tional rehabilitation, physical therapy, and modes of administration (i. Some needs are related to identity for- for persons with disabilities (see chapter 10). Buprenorphine may be a particularly satisfac- tory treatment for some adolescents. Providers onsite childcare should help patients obtain appropriate medi- opioids for pain services are available cal care and secure their safety if, for example, in few programs they are threatened. Providers need education working with elderly patients: about maintaining current opioid levels while ï Monitoring the increased risk for dangerous adding sufficient immediate-release treatment drug interactions; elderly patients often are agents to manage acute or chronic pain. Referrals to specialty pain clinics and symptoms and disorders associated with often provide patients a full spectrum of pain aging (including dementia) (Lawson 1989). These services most often are acces- ï Screening for and treating physical and sible through hospital-based programs or refer- sexual abuse (see chapter 4). Based on a thorough patient denied medication for acute or chronic pain history and assessment, a treatment plan management (Compton and Athanasos 2003). Good treatment plans contain both short- drug-seeking behavior, in part because of and long-term goals and specify the actions patientsí higher tolerance for opioids and, usu- needed to reach each goal. Treatment plans should contain specific, choices, cultural background, age, and medical measurable treatment objectives that can be status or disability. Other factors in plan Role of the counselor in plan form ulation form ulation Treatment plans should incorporate an Counselors should ensure that treatment plans assessment of linguistic and cultural factors incorporate strategies to develop therapeutic that might affect treatment and recovery either relationships with patients, based on respect positively or negatively (U. Department of for patientsí autonomy and dignity, while Health and Human Services 2001). This role, patients to identify health-related cultural which places great responsibility on the coun- beliefs, values, and practices and to decide how selor, usually incorporates cognitive behavioral to address these factors in the treatment plan approaches in which providers strive to (U. Department of Health and Human enhance patient motivation for change by Services 2001). To engage M otivation for treatm ent patients in the process of treatment planning, counselors should encourage the inclusion of Patient motivational strategies should be incor- motivational enhancement strategies that high- porated throughout the treatment plan. As part light appropriate, realistic treatment goals (Di of this process, the treatment team can benefit Clemente 1991). Research has shown that con- from an understanding of stages of change and frontational counseling or the use of negative their effects on patient progress. Prochaska contingencies often predicts treatment failure and colleagues (1982, 1986, 1992), who formu- (Miller and Rollnick 2002). Patients determined by identifying the patientís stage-of- who agree with the treatment rationale or ther- change readiness. The stages-of-change model apeutic approach tend to experience increased and corresponding counseling responsibilities determination to improve (Hubble et al. W hen Elem ents of a Treatm ent Plan possible, the treatment plan should be written in a patientís own words to describe his or her Because some patients require assistance in unique strengths, needs, abilities, and prefer- many functional areas, treatment plans should ences as well as his or her challenges and address measurable, achievable goals relevant problems. Short-term mutually approved goals that reflect awareness goals, such as vocational rehabilitation 96 Chapter 6 assessment or computer training, can evolve assessed. However, treatment plans should oped to meet regulatory and accreditation be simple and not so comprehensive that they requirements, specifying goals, actions, respon- overpower a patient with the tasks that must be sible parties, and measurable outcomes. Although both short- and long-term panel urges that these forms not be overly com- goals should be considered, the patientís plex or overwhelming to the patient. Patients involvement in defining measurable, achievable should receive a copy of the plan. Treatment plans should be provides a case study and an example of a treat- modified periodically when progress can be ment plan. As a single mother on public assistance, she first began using heroin intranasally at age 17 and began injecting 1 year later. Patient was born in Puerto Rico, and her family came to the United States when she was 10 years old. Her father was an unemployed painter and alcoholic who physically abused her mother. Patient stated that, as the youngest child, she feels that she never received enough attention or love from her mother. To support her lifestyle, which includes alcohol, cocaine, and heroin use, patient earned money through prostitution, which led to selling drugs, theft, and other criminal activities. After the patientís arrest and the removal of her children, patientís mother asked her to move out of the house; she then lived with whomever she could. She considers cessation of her cocaine habit secondary to cessation of her heroin abuse. She initially stated that she wanted to change her life, including having her own permanent housing, and she wanted to stop prostituting. Although stabilized on methadone, she continued to use cocaine on a regular basis during her first 6 months in treatment. She was assessed as having severe depression, with suicidal ideation, and escalation of cocaine abuse. Although attempts have been made to motivate patient to stop cocaine use, these attempts have been unsuccessful. Address imminent danger of suicide by developing a service plan in conjunction with mental health provider. PatientñTreatm ent M atching 99 The M ultidisciplinary Team staff on all aspects of patient care, particularly drug interactions Approach ï Nonmedical professional staff members (e. The consensus panel psychotherapy and family therapy, psycholog- recommends that the treatment team consist of ical testing and evaluation, health education, the following: and vocational skills assessment and training ï A physician trained in addiction psychiatry, ï A certified or licensed addiction specialist or who provides leadership, health care, and drug counselor medical stabilization; conducts detailed ï Nontreatment and administrative staff mem- evaluations of the patient; monitors medica- bers (e. Chapter… The sequential treatment phases described in this chapter apply primari- ly to comprehensive maintenance treatment, rather than other treatment Rationale for a options such as detoxification or medically supervised withdrawal. This chapter builds ment of, or referral for, other health care and on, adapts, and psychosocial needs. In general, most patients extends their model need more intensive treatment services at entry, as part of an overall more diversified services during stabilization, strategy for matching and fewer, less intensive services after bench- [T]reatment patients with treat- marks of recovery begin to be met (McLellan et ments. Some progress through only some the levels of care phases, and some return to previous phases. As described in chapter 4, assessment of patient readiness for a particular The model is not one directional; at any point, phase and assessment of individual needs patients can encounter setbacks that require a should be ongoing. Therefore, the chapter includes strategies for addressing setbacks and recommendations for handling Duration of Treatm ent W ithin transitions between phases, discharge, and and Across Phases readmission. The implications of both tracks should be based on accumulated data and are discussed. Although most patients would medical experience, as well as patient partici- prefer to be medication free, this goal is diffi- pation in treatment, rather than on regulatory cult for many people who are opioid addicted.