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Modafinil administered orally to pregnant rabbits throughout the period of organogenesis at doses of up to 100 mg/kg/day (plasma modafinil AUC approximately equal to the AUC in humans at the RHD) had no effect on embryofetal development purchase ponstel 250mg amex muscle relaxant used in dentistry; however buy 500 mg ponstel with mastercard muscle relaxant equipment, the doses used were too low to adequately assess the effects of modafinil on embryofetal development cheap ponstel 500 mg with visa muscle relaxant neck. In a subsequent developmental toxicity study evaluating doses of 45 cheap 500mg ponstel fast delivery muscle relaxants knee pain, 90, and 180 mg/kg/day in pregnant rabbits, the incidences of fetal structural alterations and embryofetal death were increased at the highest dose. The highest no-effect dose for developmental toxicity was associated with a plasma modafinil AUC approximately equal to the AUC in humans at the RHD. Modafinil administration to rats throughout gestation and lactation at oral doses of up to 200 mg/kg/day resulted in decreased viability in the offspring at doses greater than 20 mg/kg/day (plasma modafinil AUC approximately 0. No effects on postnatal developmental and neurobehavioral parameters were observed in surviving offspring. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of either armodafinil or modafinil in pregnant women. Two cases of intrauterine growth retardation and one case of spontaneous abortion have been reported in association with armodafinil and modafinil. Although the pharmacology of armodafinil is not identical to that of the sympathomimetic amines, it does share some pharmacologic properties with this class. Certain of these drugs have been associated with intrauterine growth retardation and spontaneous abortions. Whether the cases reported with armodafinil are drug-related is unknown. Armodafinil or modafinil should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. The effect of armodafinil on labor and delivery in humans has not been systematically investigated. It is not known whether armodafinil or its metabolites are excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when NUVIGIL tablets are administered to a nursing woman. Safety and effectiveness of armodafinil use in individuals below 17 years of age have not been established. Serious rash has been seen in pediatric patients receiving modafinilSafety and effectiveness in individuals above 65 years of age have not been established. Armodafinil has been evaluated for safety in over 1100 patients with excessive sleepiness associated with primary disorders of sleep and wakefulness. In clinical trials, NUVIGIL has been found to be generally well tolerated and most adverse experiences were mild to moderate. In the placebo-controlled clinical studies, the most commonly observed adverse events (?-U5%) associated with the use of NUVIGIL occurring more frequently than in the placebo-treated patients were headache, nausea, dizziness, and insomnia. The adverse event profile was similar across the studies. In the placebo-controlled clinical trials, 44 of the 645 patients (7%) who received NUVIGIL discontinued due to an adverse experience compared to 16 of the 445 (4%) of patients that received placebo. The most frequent reason for discontinuation was headache (1%). The following table (Table 3) presents the adverse experiences that occurred at a rate of 1% or more and were more frequent in patients treated with NUVIGIL than in placebo group patients in the placebo-controlled clinical trials. The prescriber should be aware that the figures provided below cannot be used to predict the frequency of adverse experiences in the course of usual medical practice, where patient characteristics and other factors may differ from those occurring during clinical studies. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be directly compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigations involving different treatments, uses, or investigators. Review of these frequencies, however, provides prescribers with a basis to estimate the relative contribution of drug and non-drug factors to the incidence of adverse events in the population studied. Incidence > 1% (In Percent) Of Treatment-Emergent Adverse Experiences In Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials Z In OSAHS, Narcolepsy and SWSD With Nuvigil (150 mg and 250 mg) Z Four double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies in SWSD, OSAHS, and narcolepsy; incidence is rounded to the nearest whole percent. Included are only those events for which Nuvigil incidence is greater than that of placebo. General Disorders And Administration Site ConditionsImmune System DisordersGamma-Glutamyltransferase IncreasedMetabolism And Nutrition DisordersDisturbance In AttentionRenal And Urinary DisordersRespiratory, Thoracic And Mediastinal DisordersSkin And Subcutaneous Tissue DisordersIn the placebo-controlled clinical trials which compared doses of 150 mg/day and 250 mg/day of Nuvigil and placebo, the only adverse events that appeared to be dose-related were headache, rash, depression, dry mouth, insomnia, and nausea. Incidence (In Percent) Of Dose-Dependent, Treatment-Emergent Adverse Experiences By Dose and By Treatment In Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials Z In OSAHS, Narcolepsy and SWSD With Nuvigil (150 mg and 250 mg) Z Four double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies in SWSD, OSAHS, and narcolepsy. There were small, but consistent, increases in average values for mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure in controlled trials (See Precautions ). There was a small, but consistent, average increase in pulse rate over placebo in controlled trials. Clinical chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis parameters were monitored in the studies. Mean plasma levels of gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) were found to be higher following administration of NUVIGIL, but not placebo. Few subjects, however, had GGT or AP elevations outside of the normal range. No differences were apparent in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total protein, albumin, or total bilirubin, although there were rare cases of isolated elevations of AST and/or ALT. A single case of mild pancytopenia was observed after 35-days of treatment and resolved with drug discontinuation. A small mean decrease from baseline in serum uric acid compared to placebo was seen in clinical trials. The clinical significance of this finding is unknown. No pattern of ECG abnormalities could be attributed to NUVIGIL administration in placebo-controlled clinical trials. Armodafinil (NUVIGIL) is a Schedule IV controlled substance. Although the abuse potential of armodafinil has not been specifically studied, its abuse potential is likely to be similar to that of modafinil (PROVIGIL). In humans, modafinil produces psychoactive and euphoric effects, alterations in mood, perception, thinking and feelings typical of other CNS stimulants. In in vitro binding studies, modafinil binds to the dopamine reuptake site and causes an increase in extracellular dopamine, but no increase in dopamine release. Modafinil is reinforcing, as evidenced by its self-administration in monkeys previously trained to self-administer cocaine. In some studies, modafinil was also partially discriminated as stimulant-like. Physicians should follow patients closely, especially those with a history of drug and/or stimulant (e. Patients should be observed for signs of misuse or abuse (e. The abuse potential of modafinil (200, 400, and 800 mg) was assessed relative to methylphenidate (45 and 90 mg) in an inpatient study in individuals experienced with drugs of abuse. Results from this clinical study demonstrated that modafinil produced psychoactive and euphoric effects and feelings consistent with other scheduled CNS stimulants (methylphenidate).
For the most part buy generic ponstel 500 mg on line muscle relaxant kava, premature ejaculation most often occurs as a function of a learned response purchase ponstel 250mg amex muscle relaxant properties of xanax. Early sexual experiences were often hurried in nature purchase 500mg ponstel with mastercard muscle relaxant 750. Even masturbatory activity had to be hurried for fear of being caught buy discount ponstel 250mg line muscle relaxers not working. From youth onward men have trained themselves to be more concerned with the end result and their own pleasure rather than with the sexual process and their partner. The object of sex for most of these men, was and often continues to be, ejaculating as quickly as possible. This rapid ejaculating pattern can easily become a way of life after even only a few episodes. It then begins to create a pattern of anxiety in the male each time he engages in coitus thus increasing the probability of it occurring. Fearful of displeasing their partner and feeling inadequate as a function of it, men often would rather avoid sex rather than experience the humiliation and discomfort. Ejaculatory incompetence is the opposite of premature ejaculation and refers to the inability to ejaculate inside the vagina. Men with this difficulty may be able to maintain an erection for 30 minutes to an hour, but because of psychological concerns about ejaculating inside a woman, they are not able to achieve orgasm. Usually they do not experience sexual intercourse as satisfying. Most of the men who suffer from retarded ejaculation can readily achieve orgasm through masturbation or in some cases through felatio. Many factors contribute to this condition, some of which are religious restrictions, fear of impregnating, and lack of physical interest or active dislike for the female partner. Primary erectile dysfunction refers to a man who has never been able to maintain an erection for purposes of intercourse either with a female or a male, vaginally or rectally. In secondary impotence a man cannot maintain or perhaps even get an erection, but has succeeded at having either vaginal or rectal intercourse at least one time in his life. The occasional failure to get an erection is not to be confused with secondary impotence. Familial, societal, and intrapsychic factors contribute to primary impotence. Some of the more common influences are (1) performance anxiety, (2) a seductive relationship with a mother, (3) religious beliefs in sex as a sin, (4) traumatic initial failure, (5) anger toward women, and (6) fear of impregnating a woman. These dysfunctions, according to noted sexologist, Dr. Helen Singer Kaplan, "are characterized by an inhibition in the general arousal aspect of the sexual response. On a psychological level there is a lack of erotic feelings. In other words, these women manifest a universal sexual inhibition which varies in intensity. The most common sexual complaint of women involves the specific inhibition of orgasm. Orgastic dysfunction refers solely to the impairment of the orgastic component of the female sexual response and not arousal in general. Nonorgastic women can become sexually aroused and in fact enjoy most other aspects of sexual arousal. With a combination of education and practice, most women can be taught to achieve orgasm. This relatively rare sexual disorder is characterized by a conditioned spasm of the vaginal entrance. The vagina involuntarily closes down tight whenever entry is attempted, precluding sexual intercourse. Otherwise, vaginismic women are often sexually responsive and orgastic with clitoral stimulation. Similar attitudes to those found in impotent males are often found in these women. Religious taboos, physical assault, repressed or controlled anger, and a history of painful intercourse all contribute to this dysfunction. Some women complain that they have no feelings on sexual stimulation, although they can enjoy the closeness and comfort of physical contact. Clitoral stimulation does not evoke erotic feelings though they do feel a sensation of being touched. Kaplan believes that sexual anesthesia is not a true sexual dysfunction, but rather represents a neurotic disturbance and should be treated through psychotherapy rather than sex therapy. As with sexual dysfunctions in men, the female dysfunctions also have to be understood from a social, familial and psychological perspective. Attitudes, values, childhood experiences, adult trauma, all contribute to the sexual response in women. The attitudes and values of her partners, as well as their sexual technique, play a major role in the sexual response as well. An inept or mysogynistic lover can significantly affect the female response. Since a woman often does not want to "damage the male ego," she will try to accommodate her responsiveness to him often sacrificing her satisfaction in the process. She then builds up a secondary inhibition to sexual arousal in order to avoid the frustration accompanying an unsatisfying sexual experience. This inhibition or accommodation then becomes a habituated conditioned response. As indicated above, inhibited sexual desire is almost always caused by psychological factors (some medications cause a reduction in sexual desire). Since women in our society are often more concerned with intimately connecting to their partner (as compared to men who are more often phallocentric and more concerned with orgasm), women become more sensitive to the psychological climate. When women feel that they are being used, exploited, misunderstood, rejected, unappreciated, and unattractive, their sexual desire will often be affected. Unexpressed anger and hurt can lead to depression, which affects desire. Sometimes these emotions are expressed in passive-aggressive ways, sexual withdrawal being one manifestation. Sexuality, especially for women, is more than a form of pleasure and release; it is a form of communication. Sex therapy provides information and counseling on all aspects of human sexuality, including enhancing sexual pleasure, improving sexual technique, and learning about contraception and venereal diseases.
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NOTE:: This information is not intended to cover all possible uses buy cheap ponstel 250 mg line muscle relaxant 500 mg, precautions buy ponstel 250mg overnight delivery muscle relaxant and tylenol 3, interactions order 500 mg ponstel mastercard muscle relaxant benzodiazepine, or adverse effects for this drug buy discount ponstel 250mg online spasms pancreas. If you have questions about the drug(s) you are taking, check with your health care professional. Find out why Thorazine is prescribed, side effects of Thorazine, Thorazine warnings, effects of Thorazine during pregnancy, more - in plain English. Thorazine is used for the treatment of schizophrenia (severe disruptions in thought and perception). It is also prescribed for the short-term treatment of severe behavioral disorders in children, including explosive hyperactivity and combativeness; and for the hyperenergetic phase of manic-depressive illness (severely exaggerated moods). Thorazine is also used to control nausea and vomiting, and to relieve restlessness and apprehension before surgery. It is used as an aid in the treatment of tetanus, and is prescribed for uncontrollable hiccups and acute intermittent porphyria (attacks of severe abdominal pain sometimes accompanied by psychiatric disturbances, cramps in the arms and legs, and muscle weakness). Thorazine may cause tardive dyskinesia--a condition marked by involuntary muscle spasms and twitches in the face and body. This condition may be permanent, and appears to be most common among the elderly, especially women. Ask your doctor for information about this possible risk. If taking Thorazine in a liquid concentrate form, you will need to dilute it with a liquid such as a carbonated beverage, coffee, fruit juice, milk, tea, tomato juice, or water. Puddings, soups, and other semisolid foods may also be used. Thorazine will taste best if it is diluted immediately prior to use. Do not take antacids such as Gelusil at the same time as Thorazine. Leave at least 1 to 2 hours between doses of the two drugs. If you take Thorazine once a day, take the dose you missed as soon as you remember. If you do not remember until the next day, skip the dose, then go back to your regular schedule. If you take more than 1 dose a day, take the one you missed as soon as you remember if it is within an hour or so of the scheduled time. If you do not remember until later, skip the dose, then go back to your regular schedule.. Since the liquid concentrate form of Thorazine is light-sensitive, it should be stored in a dark place, but it does not need to be refrigerated. If any develop or change in intensity, inform your doctor as soon as possible. Only your doctor can determine if it is safe for you to continue taking Thorazine. You should not take Thorazine if you have ever had an allergic reaction to any major tranquilizer containing phenothiazine. You should use Thorazine cautiously if you have ever had: asthma; a brain tumor; breast cancer; intestinal blockage; emphysema; the eye condition known as glaucoma; heart, kidney, or liver disease; respiratory infections; seizures; or an abnormal bone marrow or blood condition; or if you are exposed to pesticides or extreme heat. Stomach inflammation, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and tremors may result if you suddenly stop taking Thorazine. Thorazine can suppress the cough reflex; you may have trouble vomiting. This drug may impair your ability to drive a car or operate potentially dangerous machinery. Do not participate in any activities that require full alertness if you are unsure about your ability.. Thorazine can cause a group of symptoms called Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome, which can be fatal. Some symptoms are extremely high body temperature, rigid muscles, mental changes, irregular pulse or blood pressure, rapid heartbeat, sweating, and changes in heart rhythm. If you are on Thorazine for prolonged therapy, you should see your doctor for regular evaluations, since side effects can get worse over time. If Thorazine is taken with certain other drugs, the effects of either could be increased, decreased, or altered. It is especially important to check with your doctor before combining Thorazine with the following:Antacids such as GelusilAntiseizure drugs such as DilantinAntispasmodic drugs such as CogentinBarbiturates such as phenobarbitalBlood-thinning drugs such as CoumadinDiuretics such as DyazideLithium (Lithobid, Eskalith)MAO inhibitors (antidepressants such as Nardil and Parnate)Narcotics such as PercocetExtreme drowsiness and other potentially serious effects can result if Thorazine is combined with alcohol and other mental depressants such as narcotic painkillers like Demerol. Because Thorazine prevents vomiting, it can hide the signs and symptoms of overdose of other drugs. The effects of Thorazine during pregnancy have not been adequately studied. If you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant, notify your doctor. Pregnant women should use Thorazine only if clearly needed. Thorazine appears in breast milk and may affect a nursing infant. If this medication is essential to your health, your doctor may advise you not to breastfeed until your treatment is finished. Dosage recommendations shown here are for the oral and rectal forms of the drug. For certain problems, Thorazine is also given by injection. Schizophrenia and Mania Your doctor will gradually increase the dosage until symptoms are controlled. You may not see full improvement for weeks or even months. Initial dosages may range from 30 to 75 milligrams daily. The amount is divided into equal doses and taken 3 or 4 times a day. If needed, your doctor may increase the dosage by 20 to 50 milligrams at semiweekly intervals. The usual tablet dosage is 10 to 25 milligrams, taken every 4 or 6 hours, as needed. One 100-milligram suppository can be used every 6 to 8 hours. Uncontrollable HiccupsDosages may range from 75 to 200 milligrams daily, divided into 3 or 4 equal doses. Acute Intermittent Porphyria Thorazine is generally not prescribed for children younger than 6 months. Rectal: the usual dose is one-half milligram per pound of body weight, taken every 6 to 8 hours, as necessary.
Another approach is to suppress anger and then convert or redirect it ponstel 250mg visa muscle relaxant in surgeries. This happens when you hold in your anger purchase 250 mg ponstel amex muscle relaxant otc usa, stop thinking about it buy generic ponstel 500mg muscle relaxant for sciatica, and focus on something positive to do instead buy 500mg ponstel free shipping spasms under ribs. The aim is to inhibit or suppress your anger and convert it into more constructive behavior. Anger turned inward may cause hypertension, high blood pressure, or depression. It can lead to pathological expressions of anger such as passive-aggressive behavior (getting back at people indirectly, without telling them why, rather than confronting them head-on), or a perpetually cynical and hostile attitude. This means not just controlling your outward behavior, but also controlling your internal responses, taking steps to lower your heart rate, calm yourself down, and let the feelings subside. The goal of anger management is to reduce both your emotional feelings and the physiological arousal that anger causes. There are psychological tests that measure the intensity of angry feelings, how prone to anger you are, and how well you handle it. But chances are good that if you do have a problem with anger, you already know it. If you find yourself acting in ways that seem out of control and frightening, you might need help finding better ways to deal with this emotion. People who are easily angered generally have what some psychologists call a low tolerance for frustration, meaning simply that they feel that they should not have to be subjected to frustration, inconvenience, or annoyance. One cause may be genetic or physiological; there is evidence that some children are born irritable, touchy, and easily angered, and that these signs are present from a very early age. Research has also found that family background plays a role. Typically, people who are easily angered come from families that are disruptive, chaotic, and not skilled at emotional communication. Psychologists now say that this is a dangerous myth. Some people use this theory as a license to hurt others. If you feel that your anger is really out of control, if it is having an impact on your relationships and on important parts of your life, you might consider counseling to learn how to handle it better. A psychologist or other licensed mental health professional can work with you in developing a range of techniques for changing your thinking and your behaviors. When you talk to a prospective therapist, tell her or him that you have problems with anger that you want to work on, and ask about his or her approach to anger management. With counseling, psychologists say, a highly angry person can move closer to a middle range of anger in about 8 to 10 weeks, depending on the circumstances and the counseling techniques used. Collins, Colorado, a psychologist who specializes in anger management. How do you make new friends and where do you find them? Many people find it difficult to approach a stranger or someone they know very little about and begin getting acquainted process. Being in a class, working with someone, being in a club, being at a party or living in a dormitory or an apartment complex can put people in face-to-face contact on a regular basis. Many of these situations will provide the participants with an indirect way of getting acquainted. For instance, in a club, the participants get to know each other through mutual participation in a club activity. Whatever the situation, one must still make that opening line, the "hello" and following sentence. Often the opener is most helpful and effective when it is directed at something common in the situation the two of you are in. For instance, your opener might focus on a book that the other person you want to meet is carrying or something about them like an insignia on their clothes or the fact that you are both interested in the same club. Or you might focus on the fact that you have the same hobby or that you both know a mutual friend. Focusing on these elements common to both of you can be more effective than asking for the time or commenting about the weather. It is important, however, to get beyond them to a common topic of interest. Attempt to avoid getting mired and trading vital statistics about one another, such as: "Are you married? Open questions, in general, demand more than a one or two word answer. Notice how much more information is required to answer a more open question than a closed one. Also attempt to ask questions specific to the person rather than general questions. Similarly, share free and unsolicited information about yourself by expanding on an answer to what might have been a yes or no question. What you hope to accomplish by these tactics is that you might find some mutual areas of interest and things you might have in common with the other person. If the person you want to get to know gives signs that they want to continue the conversation, then by all means continue it, but be attentive to cues of disinterest or hesitation. If it does not seem to be developing smoothly at the moment, let it slide and return to it at a later time to reopen it. People get to know one another through a mutual process of self-disclosure that takes place over time. In this process, they share information about themselves, and, at different points of this sharing process, each decides whether they want to continue sharing to deepen their relationship. You or they might decide that you want to maintain a relationship at an acquaintance level or deepen it further into a friendship or even an intimate one. It is important not to rush it and yet not neglect it either. It is best to convey to the person that you feel positive about the relationship if that is the way you feel about it. Getting to know someone does mean risk, because rejection is always possible. Rejection, however, is much less harmful if you are prepared to understand rejection as not meaning that you are disliked or unlikable. The reasons we usually reject opening a new relationship is not because someone is not likable.