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Ostrich hens are indeterminate layers and if the eggs Season: Production is best in the early and middle portion are removed discount 100 ml duphalac free shipping treatment brown recluse spider bite, a hen may lay an egg every other day of the breeding season purchase duphalac 100 ml fast delivery medications 319. The male pecks the Cass- Ostrich Rhea Emu hen’s back and makes guttural noises during ejacula- owary tion effective 100 ml duphalac medicine garden. The male Influenzavirus type A x may not leave the nest during the entire incubation Paramyxovirus type 1 x x x x period cheap 100 ml duphalac overnight delivery medicine etymology, leading to a substantial degree of weight loss. Bacterial Bacillus anthracis x Emus are short-day breeders, with a breeding season x x Bordetella avium that lasts from October to March in the United x Clostridium botulinum States. Free-ranging emus are gregarious during the Campylobacter jejuni x x non-breeding season, but these birds tend to form E. Free-rang- Edwardsiella tarda x ing birds may begin egg laying at two to three years Pasteurella multocida x of age. Captive females may require one to two extra Haemophilus paragallinarum x x years to reach sexual maturity. Sev- Mycoplasma synoviae x eral females will lay eggs near a nest established by the Mycoplasma gallisepticum x male. The male collects these eggs for about one week and then initiates incubation of all the eggs at one time Mycoplasma meleagridis x so that the hatch is synchronized. There are many disease syndromes that disease, ostriches are little more than giant chickens. The important differ- Waste management, sanitation and human move- ences lie with the susceptibilities and relative preva- ment patterns within the flock are essential in pre- lence of these diseases. Many of the infectious diseases venting the transmission of infectious agents from are also shared by psittacines, waterfowl and other paddock to paddock or from farm to farm. Sound manage- clinicians must be acutely aware of the role they can ment dictates that ratites should not be reared in close play in the transmission of disease through improper proximity to other types of birds. Many young hens may be very in an area separated from the remainder of the group dark brown or even have a few black feathers, but for at least one month. Prolapse of the vagina can occur without egg laying and may be seen in hens less than one year of age. These prolapses are thought to be caused by unsea- Reproductive Abnormalities sonably cold temperatures. This Peritoneal hernias occur in the caudal abdominal represents a considerable economic loss given cur- cavity, allowing the intestines and uterus to prolapse rent market values for fertile eggs. Affected hens appear to the egg must occur during the first 15 minutes after have a large pericloacal swelling. Ratite hens are subject to all the reproductive disor- ders seen in other birds including oviduct infections, E. Affected hens gener- and pathogenesis of disease are comparable to the ally present with a history of erratic egg production, psittacine model (see Chapter 29). In contrast to the cessation of egg production or malformed or odorifer- smaller avian species, ratites may be afflicted with ous eggs. On physical examination, the temperature severe reproductive disorders for months or even and respiration are variable. The hen may have a years, but remain otherwise healthy and exhibit no discharge below the cloaca and may have a peculiar outward signs of disease. Affected hens often have white blood counts movement of the cloaca when a hen is jogging may be ranging from 20,000 to 100,000 (pronounced hetero- an early sign of egg-related problems. In mild cases, only the upon the reproductive history, physical examination uterus or shell gland (metritis) may be affected, and (including cloacal palpation and eversion of the phal- in these hens clinical signs range from the formation lus), and diagnostic tests including hematology and of abnormal shells to the cessation of breeding. Salpingitis or peritonitis may also occur with chronic infections or those that occur secondary to septice- Prolapse of the phallus has been described in male 27 mia. A partial prolapse may occur in reproduc- ate antimicrobial therapy, multiple vitamin and cal- tively active males with no adverse effects. Surgical (laparotomy) or nonsurgical cise etiology is unknown, but debilitation toward the (vaginal) flushing of the oviduct can be used to re- end of the breeding season and extreme weather move accumulated debris. Full prolapse requires replacement of the lated from the reproductive tracts of ratites but their phallus into the cloaca, with or without a purse- clinical importance is unknown. The prognosis is good if the damage is not too to be caused by genetic factors, malnutrition, cold extreme. Many affected hens are asymptomatic, while others may present with a his- Intersex appears to be common in the ostrich. An im- black pigment of the male’s feathers is due to a lack pacted egg may be palpable in the caudal abdomen. A mature black bird that sexes cloacally Radiology or ultrasound may be required for diagno- as a hen will not reproduce and may have inactive sis. Ovocen- tesis procedures that have been described for correct- ing egg binding in other avian species are dangerous in the ostrich because of the likelihood of fractured egg shell damaging the oviduct. None of the methods traditionally used to artificially collect semen from birds is effective in ostriches be- cause of their physical size, demeanor and lack of sexual imprinting response. Ostrich semen has been collected by means of forced massage and voluntary response; however, the semen collected is usually contaminated with urine, making assessment of con- centration, volume and pH unreliable. Beltsville chicken semen extender in a 1:1 dilution has been found to be an appropriate diluent in some birds. Note that the proventriculus in ostriches and curiosity all but ensure that they will find many extends caudal to the ventriculus. The consumption of materials that seven months of age, with 10 to 12% occurring in induce impactions may be caused by primary enteric birds six to twelve months of age and 3 to 5% occur- disease, inadequate feed availability, nutritional in- ring in adults. Ingestion of foreign bodies Ingested foreign objects initially settle in the well can be reduced by making certain that pastures and developed proventriculus and obstruct the flow of paddocks are covered with grass and do not contain ingesta or act as valves by blocking outflow into the abundant or clearly visible rocks or sand (Color ventriculus. Ventricular ulcers often de- to a new area also may reduce the consumption of velop from the trauma of constant grinding against foreign bodies. The most common clinical presentation in- vented through the early diagnosis and surgical cor- cludes lethargy accompanied by small, firm, fecal rection of gastric impactions. Occasionally, af- fected birds may appear lame or be unwilling to rise An impacted proventriculus can frequently be pal- due to weakness or pain. A cloacal prolapse may occur pated on the left side of the abdomen by identifying in chicks with proventricular impaction. Mortality levels of 25% Ultrasound and gastroscopy may be other effective were reported in a group of emus that consumed diagnostic techniques. The tive in resolving mild cases of gastric distension, but etiology is unknown, but it is speculated that an true impactions can be resolved only by surgical abrupt change in feed may be an inciting factor. The proventriculus Clinically, these birds are dehydrated, depressed and of the ostrich lies caudal and to the left of the ven- produce a scant diarrhea. Diagnosis is confirmed triculus, and the surgical procedure is a slight vari- through an exploratory laparotomy. The tomosis may be effective in resolving mild cases that proventriculus may be approached via either a do not involve an extensive amount of the gastroin- midline or left paramedian incision that extends testinal tract. Clients often mistake this sub- Allis tissue forceps or stay sutures can be used to stance for blood. The proventriculus following the ingestion of fresh green vegetation, and is temporarily sutured to the abdominal wall to mini- becomes more prominent during colder weather mize contamination of the coelomic cavity with when water intake reduction makes the urine more ingesta. Closure is in two layers with a simple continuous primary closure that is oversown Fractures with a continuous inverting suture pattern.
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Due to proximity to the cerebral circulation buy duphalac 100 ml visa treatment dry macular degeneration, this approach likely allows rapid brain cooling via both direct conductive mechanisms and indirect hematogenous mechanisms buy 100 ml duphalac with visa medications and grapefruit juice. Eight animals cooled in this way survived for 96 h cheap duphalac 100 ml with visa treatment 5th metatarsal fracture, with full neurological recovery discount duphalac 100 ml free shipping medications heart disease. Only two of eight normothermic controls survived, and both had persistent neurological de¿cits. Several mechanisms might have contributed to the ob- served improvement in myocardial performance. Greater postre- suscitation haemodynamic stability was also observed in cooled animals. These bene¿cial effects on easing de¿brillation and a more benign postresuscitation course were subsequently con¿rmed in animals in which the duration of untreated cardiac arrest was extended to 15 min . Also unexpectedly, there was remarkably higher coronary perfusion pressure in head-cooled animals, which was consistent with greater de¿brillation success (p < 0. It is conceivable that targeted cooling of the underside of the brain using nasopharyngeal cooling alters the ¿ring rates of efferent autonomic nerves in the cer- vical chain. Inhibition of sympathetic ¿ring during systemic hypothermia has been previ- ously reported, as temperature was reduced from 38ºC to 31ºC . Experimental studies in healthy volunteers demonstrated that plasma noradrenaline and total peripheral resis- tances were reduced during moderately cold head immersion for 20 min . Moreover, hypothermia has been reported to attenuate ischaemia-induced norepinephrine and acetyl- choline release in ischaemic regions . Paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus is a focal point in the complex of interacting systems regulating stress response . It has now become apparent that large-vessel pressure and Àow alone may not be predictive of the extent to which microvessels and therefore tissues are perfused [58–61]. Yet it is the microvessels and speci¿cally the capillaries that serve as the ultimate exchange sites for Fig. Based on the improved haemodynamics observed during nasopharyngeal cooling, we were prompted to investigate whether such increases were reÀected in improvements in microcirculation and tissue perfusion of the brain and heart. In a very preliminary study on pigs, we addressed cerebral microcirculatory Àows in relation to carotid blood Àows. Increases in carotid blood Àows were associated with con- current increases in the numbers of perfused capillaries visualised in the cerebral cortex (Fig. Cerebral and myocardial perfusion was assessed using coloured microspheres (mean diameter 10 ± 0. This study con¿rmed that intranasal cooling is feasible and safe to use during cardiac arrest. In addition, the target tympanic temperature of 34°C was achieved 3 h faster and time to target core temperature was 2 h faster in patients cooled intranasally in the ¿eld compared with those receiving in-hospital cooling alone . The advantage of cooling via the nasopharyngeal method is that when the cooling power is focused on the brain – the organ most vulnerable to ischaemia–reperfusion injury – much time is saved in reaching target temperature. Selective head cooling with subsequent delayed systemic hypothermia maximises neuroprotection while minimising systemic complications. More- over, evidence suggests several new implications regarding the bene¿cial effects on cere- bral and myocardial perfusion during selective head cooling. International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (2005) Part 2: Adult basic life support. Brain Resuscitation Clinical Trial I Study Group (1986) Randomized clinical study of thiopental loading in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. Adrie C, Laurent I, Monchi M et al (2004) Postresuscitation disease after cardiac arrest: a sepsis-like syndrome? Safar P (1993) Cerebral resuscitation after cardiac arrest: research initiatives and future directions. Safar P (1988) Resuscitation from clinical death: pathophysiologic limits and thera- peutic potentials. Sunde K, Pytte M, Jacobsen D et al (2007) Implementation of a standardized treat- ment protocol for post resuscitation care after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Kim F, Olsufka M, Carlbom D et al (2005) Pilot study of rapid infusion of 2 L of 4 degrees C normal saline for induction of mild hypothermia in hospitalized, coma- tose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Safar P, Xiao F, Radovsky A et al (1996) Improved cerebral resuscitation from cardiac arrest in dogs with mild hypothermia plus blood Àow promotion. The Hypothermia After Cardiac Arrest Study Group (2002) Mild therapeutic hy- pothermia to improve the neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest. Schwab S, Schwarz S, Spranger M et al (1998) Moderate hypothermia in the treat- 12 Nasopharyngeal Cooling During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation 137 ment of patients with severe middle cerebral artery infarction. Ooboshi H, Ibayashi S, Takano K et al (2000) Hypothermia inhibits ischemia-in- duced efÀux of amino acids and neuronal damage in the hippocampus of aged rats. Ristagno G, Tantillo S, Sun S et al (2010) Hypothermia improves ventricular myo- cyte contractility under conditions of normal perfusion and after an interval of isch- emia. Leonov Y, Sterz F, Safar P et al (1990) Mild cerebral hypothermia during and after cardiac arrest improves neurologic outcome in dogs. Kuboyama K, Safar P, Radovsky A et al (1993) Delay in cooling negates the bene¿- cial effect of mild resuscitative cerebral hypothermia after cardiac arrest in dogs: a prospective, randomized study. Guan J, Barbut D, Wang H et al (2008) A comparison between head cooling begun during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and surface cooling after resuscitation in a pig model of cardiac arrest. Yu T, Barbut D, Ristagno G et al (2010) Survival and neurological outcomes af- ter nasopharyngeal cooling or peripheral vein cold saline infusion initiated during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest. Sterz F, Zeiner A et al (1996) Mild resuscitative hypothermia and outcome after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Allers M, Boris-Moller F, Lunderquist A et al (2006) A new method of selective, rapid cooling of the brain: an experiemtnal study. Wang H, Olivero W, Lanzino G et al (2004) Rapid and selective cerebral hypo- thermia achieved using a cooling helmet. Wang Y, Zhu L (2007) Targeted brain hypothermia induced by an interstitial cooling device in human neck: theoretical analyses. Mourot L, Bouhaddi M, Gandelin E et al (2008) Cardiovascular autonomic control during short-term thermoneutral and cool head-out immersion. Kawada T, Kitagawa H, Yamazaki T et al (2007) Hypothermia reduces ischemia- and stimulation-induced myocardial interstitial norepinephrine and acetylcholine releases. Pacak K (2000) Stressor-speci¿c activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adreno- cortical axis. Circulation 122(7):729–736 Amplitude Spectrum Area 13 as a Predictor of Successful Defbrillation G. During cardiac arrest, coronary blood Àow ceases, accounting for progressive and severe energy imbalance. In- tramyocardial hypercarbic acidosis is associated with depletion of high-energy phosphates and correspondingly severe global myocardial ischaemia [11, 12]. After onset of contracture, the probability of successful de¿brillation is remote.
Moisture order 100 ml duphalac otc symptoms blood clot leg, protein 100 ml duphalac overnight delivery symptoms vitamin b deficiency, fat purchase duphalac 100 ml without a prescription medicine youth lyrics, ash purchase duphalac 100 ml line symptoms youre pregnant, fiber, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin C and vitamin B1 were also investigated and found to be the constituents of the whole plant. Accordingly, two compounds were detected, one was assumed to be vitex and the other saponarin. The antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of the whole plant and the isolated compounds were tested against different microorganism by agar-well diffusion method. The acetone extract was found to show the best activity and none in aqueous extract on all tested microorganisms. Compound A (vitexin) showed the activity on all tested microorganisms but compound B (saponarin) did not show any activity against Staphylococcus aureus. So, the results provided much useful information for the development of the traditional medicine from natural products. This plant has found to be applied in folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The 70% ethanolic extract of this plant was tested for antipyretic activity on yeast induced pyrexia in albino rats. The antipyretic activity of 70% ethanolic extract was compared with standard drug paracetamol. Phytochemical study on the Myanmar Momordica species, the isolation of hypoglycemic Charantin and their antibacterial activities. A phytochemical study had been undertaken out on the four speices and a variety of the genus Momordica of the family Cucurbitaceae, out of which some pharmacological study was made on Momordica charantia L. In the pharmacological study the effect of antidiabetes was tested with ethanolic extract and fresh juice of leaves of Momordica charantia L. The antibacterial activities were undertaken by testing with various crude extracts of the leaves and fruits of Momordica chrantia L. Thu-young root (identification as Talinum cuneifolium) was collected from the Southern Shan State. The local people believe that it possesses adaptogenic properties like Panax ginseng. The chemical investigation was carried out and the separated products identified qualitatively. The petroleum ether extract contains triglycerides, hydrocarbon waxes and a trace of sterol or triterpene. Alcohol soluble portion contains an acid insoluble in water and which is found to be either a steroid or triterpene in nature, potassium nitrate, reducing sugars and a coloured mother liquor which gives a positive glycoside test. In the water soluble portion, the following compounds were detected: starch, pectins, reducing sugars, phenolic compounds and glycoside. Metallic ions and salts are also present namely, potassium nitrate, trace of iron, and calcium. Pilot study of hypoglycemic potential of Bay-dar-pwint (Eichhornia crassipes Solms. Myat Myat Ohn Khin, Thaung Hla, Thidar Swe, Than Tun, Myint Myint Than, Kyaw Myint Tun. Base on the above mention scientific knowledge in this study, a pilot scale clinical trial was done on its hypoglycemic and side-effects in healthy human volunteers. Plant diversity in Mae-san-mhe Hill and pharmacognostic study on Tephrosia purpurea (L. Five stations were established at different altitudes to study distribution of plants. The species found in each station were recorded, counted and species area curve of cumulative number of species per block had been surveyed during wet and dry season by the method of Horn (1993). Only those plants which were characteristic to the central dry zone were photographed and described. So these plants were collected, classified and verified for its identifying (Nair, 1962; Backer, 1963; Hooker, 1897; kirtikar and Basu, 1933). In Myanmar, the same vernacular name Mae-yaing is given to two different species, namely Indigofera tinctoria L. Is 5-25 green but brown when drying oblanceolate, inflorescence racemose, flowers violet to purple, fruit flattened, linear, slightly curved, seeds 5-7 in each legume. In transverse section of midrib and petiolule, the vascular bundle is cresent shape in outline and close collateral type. The distinct macrosclereids are present as a layer in the epicarp of fruit wall and in the testa of seed-coat but the arrangements are different. In the former they are elongated transversely whereas in the latter they are elongated radially with a layer of shorter sclereids. The presence of steroids and flavonoids were observed in the phytochemical investigation of the powdered leaves. As such β- sitosterol and rutin were isolated rom the leaves of Tephrosia purpurea (L. Leaves were extracted with n-hexane, chloroform, petroleum ether, benzene, acetone, methanol, ethyl acetate and ethanol. Their extractives were used to screen for antimicrobial activities in vitro with six test organisms and was found to posses antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus pumalis, Candida albicans and Mycobacterium spp. Mar Mar Nyein; New Yee Win; Win Myint; Aye Aye Thein; Mi Mi Htwe; Win Win Maw; Aye Than. Forty one plants were tested for antibacterial activity by using 18 species of bacteria and found to be active on some bacteria by 28 plants. The tested bacteria include: five species of Escherichia coli; four species of shigella; three species of vibrios; and one each of Klebsiella aerogenes, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Proteus morganii, Pseudomonas pyocyanea, Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus. Plants having antibacterial activity include Ageratum conyzoides (Hkwe-thai-pan), Azadirachta indica (Tamar); Cassia fistula (Ngu); Coleus aromaticus (Ziyarywethtu); Cuminum cyminum (Ziyarzai); Cyperus scariosus (Nwamyetyin); Embelia robusta (Eikmwethee); Embilica officinalis (Zibyu); Eugenia caryophyllata (Layhnin); Eugenia jambolana (Thabye); Eupatorium odoratum (Bizat); Euphorbia milli (Shahzaungtinga-neah); Euphorbia splendens (Shahzaungtinga-neah-ni and wah); Garcinia mangostana (Min-good); Giradimia zeylonica (Petya); Leucaena glauca (Bawsakaine); Neptunia oleracea (Yehtikayone); Nerium oleander (Nwethagi); Nyctanthes arbortristis (Seikphalu); Phyllanthus urinaria (Taungzibyu); Pinus kesiya (Htinyu); Piper betle (Kun); Piper nigrum (Ngayokekaung); Plumeria rubra (Tayokesaka-ni); Rhoeo discolor (Mikwingamone); Terminalia chebula (Panga); and Vinca rosea (Thinbawmanyo). The present work is on the Polypetalous angiosperm flora of Tharrawaddy town and its vicinity, in Pegu Division. Intensive collection of the specimens was undertaken over a three -year period from 1985 to 1988 at fortnightly intervals. Approximately 120 species of polypetalous flowers belonging to 86 genera distributed among 28 families have been collected. The families Malvaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Mimosaceae, Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae, are seen to be the most abundant. Highly valuable timber plants such as, Hopea odorata, Shorea siamensis, Swietenia macrophylla, Pterocarpus macrocarpus were also collected. The medicinally important plants found in this area are Ricinus communis, Jatropha sp. The economically important species are fibreyielding plants such as Hibiscus tiliaceus, Gossypium barbadense, Salmalia malabarica and tannin-yielding plants like Acacia catechu and Lawsonia inermis which are used to stain finger nails, teeth and beard. Out of the species collected from this area, it was found that about 84 have already been reported in floras previously compiled by other students in the Botany Department, University of Rangoon. To support the descriptions, line drawings of the habit, longitudinal sections of the flowers, fruits and seeds were included and described in detail.
Fluid extract: Typically a hydroalcoholic solution with a strength of 1 part solvent to 1 part herb order duphalac 100 ml line symptoms quiz. Free radical: A highly reactive molecule characterized by an unpaired electron that can bind to and destroy cellular compounds buy duphalac 100 ml free shipping symptoms lead poisoning. Giardiasis: An infection of the small intestine caused by the protozoan (single-celled organism) Giardia lamblia generic duphalac 100 ml visa medications for factor 8. Glaucoma: A condition in which the pressure of the fluid in the eye is so high that it causes damage discount 100 ml duphalac medications with weight loss side effects. Glucose: A monosaccharide found in the blood that is one of the body’s primary energy sources. Gluten: One of the proteins in wheat and certain other grains that gives dough its tough, elastic character. Glycoside: A sugar-containing compound composed of a glycone (sugar component) and an aglycone (non-sugar-containing component) that can be cleaved on hydrolysis. The glycone portion may be glucose, rhamnose, xylose, fructose, arabinose, or any other sugar. Ground substance: The thick, gel-like material in which the cells, ﬁbers, and blood capillaries of cartilage, bone, and connective tissue are embedded. Holistic medicine: A form of therapy aimed at treating the whole person, not just the part or parts in which symptoms occur. Hormone: A secretion of an endocrine gland that controls and regulates body functions. Iatrogenic: Literally “physician produced,” the term can be applied to any medical condition, disease, or other adverse occurrence that results from medical treatment. Incidence: The number of new cases of a disease occurring during a given period (usually years) in a defined population. Interferon: A potent immune-enhancing substance that is produced by the body’s cells to ﬁght off viral infection and cancer. Jaundice: A condition caused by elevation of bilirubin in the body and characterized by yellowing of the skin. Lactase: An enzyme that breaks down lactose into the monosaccharides glucose and galactose. Leukotriene: An inﬂammatory compound produced when oxygen interacts with polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lymph: Fluid contained in lymphatic vessels that ﬂows through the lymphatic system to be returned to the blood. Malignant: A term used to describe a condition that tends to worsen and eventually causes death. Manipulation: As a therapy, the skillful use of the hands to move a part of the body or a speciﬁc joint or muscle. Mast cell: A cell found in many tissues of the body that contributes greatly to allergic and inflammatory processes by secreting histamine and other inflammatory particles. Metabolism: A collective term for all the chemical processes that take place in the body. Molecule: The smallest complete unit of a substance that can exist independently and still retain the characteristic properties of the substance. Monoclonal antibody: A genetically engineered antibody specific to one particular antigen. Mucous membrane: The soft pink tissue that lines most of the body’s cavities and tubes, including the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, and eyelids. Mucus: The slick, slimy ﬂuid secreted by the mucous membranes that acts as a lubricant and mechanical protector of the mucous membranes. Myelin sheath: A white fatty substance that surrounds nerve cells to aid in nerve impulse transmission. Neoplasia: A tumor formation characterized by a progressive, abnormal replication of cells. Oleoresin: Generally, a mixture of resins and volatile oils either occuring naturally or made by extracting the oily and resinous materials from botanicals with organic solvents (e. The solvent is then removed under vacuum, leaving behind a viscous, semisolid extract that is the oleoresin. Parkinson’s disease: A slowly progressive, degenerative nervous system disease characterized by resting tremor, “pill rolling” by the ﬁngers, a masklike facial expression, a shufﬂing gait, and muscle rigidity and weakness. Pathogenesis: The process by which a disease originates and develops, particularly cellular and physiological processes. Peristalsis: Successive muscular contractions of the intestines that move food through the intestinal tract. Physiology: The study of the functioning of the body, including the physical and chemical processes of its cells, tissues, organs, and systems. Placebo: An inert or inactive substance used to test the efficacy of another substance. Commonly used to refer to physiological disorders thought to be caused entirely or partly by psychological factors. Resin: A complex oxidative product of a terpene that occurs naturally as a plant exudate or is prepared by alcohol extraction of a botanical that contains a resinous principle. Saponin: A nonnitrogenous glycoside, typically with sterol or triterpene as the aglycone, that possesses the property of foaming, or making suds, when strongly agitated in aqueous solution. Saturated fat: A fat whose carbon atoms are bonded to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms; found in animal products such as meat, milk, milk products, and eggs. Solid extract: An extract from which all of the residual solvent or liquid has been removed. Suppressor T cell: A lymphocyte controlled by the thymus gland that suppresses the immune response. Syndrome: A group of signs and symptoms that occur together in a pattern characteristic of a particular disease or abnormal condition. Tincture: An alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions that usually contains the active principles of a botanical in a low concentration. It is usually prepared by maceration, percolation, or dilution of its corresponding ﬂuid or native extracts. The strength of a tincture is typically 1 to 10 or 1 to 5; the alcohol content varies. Trans-fatty acid: A detrimental type of fat found in margarine, dairy products, and many processed foods. Uremia: The retention of urine by the body and the presence of high levels of urine components in the blood. Vitamin: An essential compound necessary to act as a catalyst in normal processes of the body.
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