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However purchase 100 mg vermox otc acute hiv infection how long does it last, even properly tuned and adjusted gamma cameras produce nonuniform images with count density variations of as much as 10% discount 100mg vermox fast delivery antivirus software for mac. Such nonuniformity adds to the degradation of the spatial resolution of the system vermox 100mg cheap hiv infection vdrl. Although factor (c) is preventable as discussed below discount vermox 100mg overnight delivery diferencia entre antiviral y antibiotico, factors (a) and (b) are the leading causes of deterioration in uniformity and special attention is needed to remedy them. An intrinsic image (without the col- limator) is acquired using the appropriate window and stored in a 128 × 128 matrix. The pulse height in each (X, Y) pixel is determined and stored in a 128 × 128 look-up table. In subsequent patient studies, a microprocessor compares the pulse height in each pixel of the patient image with the cor- responding value in the look-up table, and then either moves the energy 130 10. Performance Parameters of Gamma Cameras window or adjusts the pulse height to compensate for the variations. This is performed in real-time during the data collection in patient studies and should be carried out for each radionuclide. Nonlinearity The spatial nonlinearities are systematic errors in the positioning of X-, Y-coordinates of pulses in the image and result from local count compres- sion or expansion. The spatial distortions due to nonlinearity are corrected by micro- processors built into modern cameras that use correction matrices. Nonlin- earity correction factors are generated by calculating the spatial shift of the observed position of an event from its actual position. The test pattern is placed directly on the detector, and an image is stored in a 128 × 128 matrix. The actual location (X, Y) of each pixel is known and the corresponding location on the image is measured. These variations in X, Y for all pixels are calculated as correction factors and are normally supplied by the manufacturer in the form of a look-up table. These correction factors are subsequently applied in real-time to each detected event to move it to the actual position during patient imaging. As stated above, modern cameras include two look-up matrices, the pulse-height correction and the linearity correction, to compensate for vari- ations in the overall uniformity of images. As the camera slowly drifts over time, the correction tables have to be updated for proper correction of the patient scan. The exact frequency of reacquiring the correction tables depends on stability of the camera and varies with the manufacturer. The pulse-height correction tables require more frequent acquisitions, whereas the linearity correction tables are typically performed by a service engineer. Different manufacturers recommend monthly to quarterly acquisition of these correction factor maps. Even though the uni- formity corrections at times can correct for large nonuniformities, frequent retuning of the gamma camera is essential as these corrections affect lin- earity, resolution, and overall sensitivity of the camera. Gamma Camera Tuning 131 Edge Packing Edge packing is seen around the edge of an image as a bright ring and results in nonuniformity of the image. Normally a 5-cm wide lead ring is attached around the edge of the colli- mator to mask this effect. The source of radiation can be either the radi- ation from the patient or an external radioactive source, for example, 99mTc. Performance Parameters of Gamma Cameras Effects of High Counting Rates As discussed in Chapter 8, the scintillation cameras suffer count losses at high counting rates due to pulse pileup. Pulse pileup results from the detec- tion by the camera of two events simultaneously as one event with ampli- tude different from that of either original event. If one or both of the events are photopeaks, then the amplitude of the new event will be outside the pulse-height window setting and so the event will be rejected resulting in a loss of counts. If, however, two Compton scattered photons are processed together to produce an event equivalent to the photopeak in amplitude, then the event will be counted within the window setting. But the X, Y posi- tion of the event will be misplaced on the image somewhere between the locations of the two events. Both count rate loss and image distortion at high count rates must be taken into consider- ation in evaluating the performance of different cameras. Several techniques are employed to improve the high count rate performance of a gamma camera. In modern cameras, buffers (or deran- domizers) are used in which pulses are processed one at a time, and over- lapping events are kept on “hold” until the processing of the preceding event is completed. Other cameras use pulse pileup rejection circuits to minimize the count loss and image dis- tortion and thus to improve images, although they tend to increase the dead time of the camera. Recent developments include high-speed electronics that reduce the number of misplaced events and improve the image quality signiﬁcantly. Contrast Contrast of an image is the relative variations in count densities between adjacent areas in the image of an object. Contrast (C) gives a measure of detectability of an abnormality relative to normal tissue and is expressed as A − C = (10. Lesions on the image are seen as either “hot” or “cold” spots indicating increased or decreased uptakes of radioactivity in the corresponding areas in the object. Several factors affect the contrast of the image, namely, count density, scattered radiation, pulse pileup, size of the lesion, and patient motion, and each contributes to the contrast to a varying degree. Quality Control Tests for Gamma Cameras 133 Statistical variations of the count rates give rise to noise that increases with decreasing information density or count density (counts/cm2) and is given by (1/ N ) × 100, where N is the count density. For a given imaging setting, a minimum number of counts need to be collected for rea- sonable image contrast. Even with adequate spatial resolution from the imaging device, lack of sufﬁcient counts may give rise to poor contrast due to increased noise, so much so that lesions may be missed. This count density depends on the amount of activity administered and the uptake in the organ of interest. Contrast is improved with increasing administered activity and also with the differential uptake between the normal and abnormal tissues. However, due consideration should be given to the radiation dose to the patient from a large amount of administered activity. Sometimes, high count density is achieved by counting for a longer period of time in the case of low administered activity. It should be emphasized that spatial resolution is not affected by the increased count density from increased administered activity or longer counting. Background in the image increases with scattered radiations and thus degrades the image contrast. As discussed above, at high count rates, pulse pileup can degrade the image contrast. Image contrast to distinguish a lesion depends on its size relative to system resolution and its surrounding background. Unless a minimum size of a lesion larger than system resolution develops, contrast may not be suf- ﬁcient to appreciate the lesion, even at higher count density. The lesion size factor depends on the background activity surrounding it and on whether it is a “cold” or “hot” lesion.
The load cell controls the body weight support rate and speed of up/down direction discount vermox 100mg hiv infection rate vancouver. However prevention of medical misadventure comes through results indicate that the fexion of knee joint and plantarfexion community and physician education and patient empowerment cheap vermox 100 mg otc hiv infection game. The result from Back pain is boring purchase 100 mg vermox with amex hiv infection rates in the caribbean, so fashy humor may reach populations better assistance of knee joint fexion and plantarfexion caused decline than serious campaigns discount vermox 100mg visa hiv infection from hospital. The longer sustainment time is worst possible doctor (a ‘quack’) by giving bad advice to a 2 dimen- J Rehabil Med Suppl 55 Poster Abstracts 271 sional patient. For consumers BackQuack™ includes a history form in all the world, the problems of poor people are present a lot and and numerous education pamphlets. Website use was tracked and surveys sent otherapists, start to teach something about rehabilitation to a group to consumers (600 control, 600 intervention community members of volunteers. The teachers had experience in low resourches both before and after intervention) and physicians (all listed phy- countries. Results: and Valmontone, near Rome, in a lot of villages in Romagna and Use of BackQuack™ online increased from 27/month (s. Sur- clusion: We think that medical and social rehabilitation must have vey responses were disappointing with 20. Conclusion: Increased website use and physician recognition of BackQuack™ suggest that com- munity awareness did increase, however mailed surveys did not capture this increase. Results: Develop standard training all possible sensory contact with the feet be stimulated. Conclusion: People With disability, the family and the sidual limb ends and speaker. The whole treatment and rehabilitation process of the child were performed at home with continuous follow up. Pestelli1 child under this method we observed signifcant outcome and im- 1 provement in access to rehabilitation as well as fulfllment of our Forli, Italy goal that is to make the child independent. For a long time medical rehabilitation into the hospitals was signed as the true rehabilitation for the best doctors. Participant got some facilities from Rehabilitation Centre, Musculoskeletal, Stoke-on-Trent, United garment factories. Providing with lift facilities, overtime facilities, Kingdom, 4North Staffordshire Rehabilitation Centre, Musculoskel- enough lighting, sitting arrangement, sick leave permission, shown etal and Rheumatology, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom sympathy, payment timely and easier job is given. Maximum worker opinion for modify culoskeletal disease, avoiding inappropriate referrals to expensive their workplace. Family Physicians and Physiotherapists use a national electronic referral system for patients >18 years with no red fags or features of infammatory arthritis. The novel nature of strengthen the process of developing strategic guidance for service our service comes from the multidisciplinary nature of its work- delivery and liaison with key stakeholders in Africa, by exchang- force, its engagement with patients, stake holders and its willing- ing knowledge, experience and skills and coordinating individual ness to utilise new strategies to ensure good service model provi- efforts by each country. The average number of rehabilitation physicians 1Swiss Paraplegic Centre, Acute Care and Rehabilitation, Nottwil, and therapists of each hospital was 4. Secondary rehabilitation agencies undertake the largest ment, Nottwil, Switzerland rehabilitation medicine workload of citywide, per hospital of third rehabilitation agencies undertake the largest rehabilitation medi- Introduction/Background: The admission process of patients to a cine workload. These two levels of rehabilitation agencies under- hospital is the starting point for inpatient services. In order to opti- take the workload of outpatient rehabilitation therapy and inpatient mize the quality of the health service process, one need a better un- rehabilitation therapy was 91. Conclusion: Foshan was to identify challenges and potential improvements in the admis- has build three level rehabilitation medicine care system, but the sion process of spinal cord injury patients at a specialized clinic from rehabilitation hospitals and primary medical institutions lack the the perspective of an interdisciplinary team of health profession- capacity of rehabilitation services, the indentation of rehabilitation als. Material and Methods: Semi-structured interviews with eight physicians and therapists is big. Conclusion: This study identifed fve themes of challenges Dhaka, Bangladesh and potential improvements in the admission process of spinal cord injury patients at a specialized clinic. When planning adaptions of Introduction/Background: Assistive technology is any device that is process steps in one of the areas, awareness of effects in other felds used to enhance a person’s functioning and participation (Scherer, is necessary. Occupational therapists have expertise in assessing clients important step to optimize the admission process. Managers of other hospitals can sup- been providing these services since 2008 under the Occupational plement the results of this study with their own process analyses, to Therapy Department at The Centre for the Rehabilitation of the improve their own patient admission processes. Objectives/Purposes: The assistive devices can help a person to engage in his/her regular activities where it may not be possible otherwise due to impairment or disability. De (remediation) and continuing the modifcation of the task or the 1 2 1 3 Baets , A. Patient cen- derstraeten 1Ghent University, Rehabilitation Medicine, Ghent, Belgium, tered functional assessment is completed for each patient. Conclusion: Patient Satisfaction Survey on Assistive Devices ogy, Ghent, Belgium, 3University Hospital Ghent, Department of used very effectively for the activity of daily living. The percent body fat is reduced but ticipation frequency, extent of involvement and desire for change the differences were not signifcant (p>0. Conclusion: This in- in sets of activities typical for the home, school or community novative intervention was effective in improving physical activity. It also includes an assessment of the effect It is likely that even greater effects could be achieved by improve- of environment on children’s participation. The aim of this study ments in implementation strategies, leading to higher fdelity. Information about child and family 1The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Faculty of Health and So- demographics is assessed by a short question-naire that includes cial Sciences, Hong Kong, Hong Kong- China, 2The Hong Kong information regarding participants’ demographic, child and family Polytechnic University, Department of Applied Social Sciences, characteristics (gender, maternal and paternal level of education, Hong Kong, Hong Kong- China level of income & current employment, age of the child if/when re-ceiving diagnosis, access to intervention etc. However, the needs of Results: Participation data reported by parents are currently being the family caregivers are often being neglected. Prepara- aimed to identify the needs of a family caregiver in taking care of a tory descriptive analyses are conducted. Mate- of children with disabilities and delays in terms of 1) home, school rial and Methods: We adopted action research as our methodol- and community patterns, 2) perceived environmental supports and ogy which aimed to improve our practice through the experiment. The Chinese version of 1) Depression Anxiety participation oriented interventions. A wide range of have an increased risk for unhealthy diets, physical inactivity and needs of those family caregivers was identifed which facilitates the weight disturbances. The nutritional education is a right food choices, 942 health habits, usage of nutrition labeling and so on. Results: A total ence- Unit of Epidemiology, Chemnitz, Germany number of 37 community residences expressed an initial interest Introduction/Background: Migrants in Germany utilize rehabilita- in participation but four loss, leaving 33 residences for baseline tive services less often than the majority population, independently measurements. A total of 33 participants, 22 men and 11 women of demographic and socioeconomic factors. The program participants were signifcant reduc- explored potential barriers that migrants face in rehabilitative care, tions in the Triglyceride (p=0.
Lipids do not travel in the blood alcohol syndrome typically have a thin upper lip and by themselves order 100mg vermox mastercard hiv infection gas pumps, but they are carried through the flat philtrum 100mg vermox fast delivery pharmacology antiviral quiz. Most frequently seen in older adults (age 40 and above) buy cheap vermox 100 mg line hiv infection rate hong kong, liposarcomas are the most common of lipid A fat order 100 mg vermox fast delivery anti virus ware for mac. Lipids are easily stored in the body liposuction The surgical suctioning of fat and serve as fuel. Among the well-known lipids are deposits from specific parts of the body, the most cholesterol, triglycerides, fatty acids, and steroids common being the abdomen, buttocks, hips, thighs (such as cortisone). A phospholipids are all compound lipids (lipids in hollow instrument called a cannula is inserted combination with other types of chemicals). A high-pressure vacuum is then applied to the cannula to suck out lipid profile A pattern of lipids in the blood. Lipid storage diseases result in the abnormal includes the local anesthetic lidocaine to numb accumulation of lipids in various organs. Examples the area and the vessel-constrictor epinephrine include Gaucher disease, Fabry disease, Niemann- (adrenaline) to help minimize bleeding. This technique has an advantage in areas of scar tissue, such as the male breast, the back, and lithotomy Surgical removal of a stone. Its disadvantages include the need for lithotripsy A procedure that uses shock waves to longer incisions in the skin, a potential for skin or break a stone in the kidney, urinary tract, or gall- internal burns, greater cost, and a longer time bladder. Anesthesia may be necessary to control the pain, Listeriosis A disease that is caused by eating depending on the size and density of the stone and food contaminated with the bacterium Listeria on the energy of the shock wave needed to break it monocytogenes. The urologist may opt to place a catheter (stent) health problem in North America. The disease in the ureter from below to facilitate passage of the affects primarily pregnant women, newborns, and shattered fragments. The Listeriosis can prevent the infection by avoiding cer- procedure is done under anesthesia, using real- tain high-risk foods and by handling food properly. Raw food from animal sources (such as beef, pork, or poultry) should be thoroughly cooked and lithotriptor A machine that is used to shatter uncooked meats should be kept separate from veg- kidney stones and gallstones by physical or other etables, cooked foods, and ready-to-eat foods. Livedo reticularis can be a nor- mal condition that is simply more obvious when a the volume of 1 kilogram of water at 4° Celsius and at standard atmospheric pressure of 760 millime- person is exposed to the cold. A liter is a little more been reported in association with autoimmune dis- than 1 quart (1. Treatment of lithium toxicity store, and process fats, including fatty acids (used involves immediately reducing or discontinuing for energy) and cholesterol; to metabolize and store carbohydrates (used as the source for the sugar in lithium use under medical supervision. The procedure can be biochemical products produced by the body, such as done in the physician’s office and requires only a bilirubin, from the breakdown of old red blood cells local anesthetic. The most common method for ence and math education, the environment, energy, obtaining a liver biopsy is percutaneous (“through and national security. The most common rea- fissures, connective tissue, or other natural bound- son for liver transplantation in children is biliary aries. The most common reason for liver transplantation in adults is lobectomy An operation to remove an entire cirrhosis (a disease in which healthy liver cells are lobe of the lung. There is no effective treatment for end-stage liver disease other lobular carcinoma of the breast, infiltrating than transplantation. At first the specifies what types of medical treatment are lochia is primarily blood, followed by a more desired. A living will can be very specific or very mucousy fluid that contains dried blood, and finally general. More specific living wills may include information locomotion 1 Movement from one place to regarding an individual’s desire for services such as another. The aortic aneurysms of Loeys-Dietz syndrome are prone to Lou Gehrig’s disease See amyotrophic lateral rupture at a smaller size than other aneurysms, with sclerosis. The irregular heartbeats are typically brought lower segment cesarean section See cae- on by stress or vigorous activity. The lumbar vertebrae and their longitudinal section A section that is cut along disks are situated below the thoracic vertebrae and the long axis of a structure. Longitudinal section is above the sacral vertebrae in the spinal column and the opposite of cross-section. For example, a longitudinal study of lumbar puncture A procedure in which cere- children with Down syndrome might involve the brospinal fluid is removed from the spinal canal for study of 100 children with this condition from birth diagnostic testing or treatment. Longitudinal study is the opposite patient usually lies sideways for the procedure, of cross-sectional (synchronic) study. As inflammation continues, scar tissue may done for therapeutic purposes, as a way of adminis- form, including keloid scarring in patients prone to tering antibiotics, cancer drugs, or anesthetic agents keloid formation. Lupus is more common in patients with conditions such as normal-pressure women than in men, and although it occurs in all hydrocephalus or benign intracranial hypertension. These complications vation of symptoms, and through testing of the are uncommon, with the exception of headache, blood for signs of autoimmune activity. Headaches ment is essential to prevent progression of the dis- are less likely to occur if the patient remains lying ease. A rheumatologist can provide treatment for flat for 1 to 3 hours after the procedure. Also known lupus, and this treatment has two objectives: treat- as spinal tap, spinal puncture, thecal puncture, and ing the difficult symptoms of the disease and treat- rachiocentesis. It may include use of steroids and other anti-inflammatory lumbar vertebrae The five vertebrae situated agents, antidepressants and/or mood stabilizers, between the thoracic vertebrae and the sacral verte- intravenous immunoglobulin, and, in cases in brae in the spinal column. The lumbar vertebrae are which lupus involves the internal organs, represented by the symbols L1 through L5. In com- lupus, discoid A chronic inflammatory condi- mon use, lumpectomy refers especially to removal tion that is limited to the skin and is caused by an of a lump from the breast. Skin symp- toms associated with discoid lupus include patchy lung One of a pair of three-lobed breathing redness with areas of hyper- and hypopigmentation organs located within the right and left sides of the that can cause scarring; and photosensitivity, or skin chest. The lungs remove carbon dioxide from the rash in reaction to exposure to sunlight. Treatment the left and right lungs by means of the left and right is directed toward decreasing inflammation and/or bronchi. Treatment methods smaller bronchioles, which end in many alveolar include avoidance of sun exposure and use of anti- sacs. In the tiny alveoli within these sacs, oxygen is malarial medications (hydroxychloroquine and oth- exchanged for carbon dioxide in blood delivered ers), local cortisone injections, Dapsone, and back to the heart by the pulmonary veins. See also lupus; function is controlled by several muscles, including lupus erythematosis, systemic. Lung transplant is sometimes done in tan- exposure; ulceration of the mucus lining of the dem with heart transplant. Patients with lupus have in carditis/pleuritis), usually associated with chest pain their blood unusual antibodies that are targeted with breathing; abnormal amounts of protein or cel- against their own body tissues. Lupus can cause dis- lular elements in the urine, caused by kidney abnor- ease of the skin, heart, lungs, kidneys, joints, and malities; brain irritation manifested by seizures, nervous system.
In the absence of functional information about which polymorphisms are bio- logically signiﬁcant order 100mg vermox otc anti viral sore throat, it is desirable to test the potential effect of all polymorphisms on drug response cheap vermox 100mg with amex hiv infection personal stories. Genotyping and Haplotyping A genotype is the genetic constitution of an organism as deﬁned by genetic and molecular analysis and covers the complete set of genes order vermox 100mg overnight delivery antiretroviral therapy. Genotyping can be used for determination of relevant genetic variation in each of the two parental chromosomes in an individual cheap 100mg vermox hiv infection rates cdc. Haplotypes are gene versions that represent the genetic variations as they occur on each pair of chromosome in an individual. Haplotypes are the most precise markers possible for a given gene because they contain all the variations in a gene. Haplotyping information makes it possible to highlight the structure of the genome, notably through haploblocks which correspond to segments of chromosomes unlikely to undergo a crossing-over event. Candidate gene-based haplotype approach has been applied to the pharmacoge- netics of drug response and adverse events. Clinical trials using haplotyped indi- viduals were the ﬁrst genetically personalized medical treatments. Only two genomes were completely haplotyped: the reference human genome and Craig Venter’s genome, both of which relied on Sanger sequencing and clone mapping to resolve the haplotypes, which is a labor-intensive and costly process. Although the newer sequencing technologies enabled cost reductions and higher throughput, the shorter reads are not amenable to obtaining haplotype information, which will be critical in the ﬁelds of personalized medicine and population genetics. The ﬁrst method was used to determine the haplotype-resolved genome of a South Asian individual (Kitzman et al. A single fosmid library was split into a modest number of pools, each providing ∼3 % physical coverage of the diploid genome. Sequencing of each pool yielded reads overwhelmingly derived from only one homologous chromosome at any given location. This method also facilitates the analysis of structural variation, for example, to anchor novel insertions to speciﬁc locations and haplotypes. The second method used a microﬂuidic device capable of separating and ampli- fying homologous copies of each chromosome from a single human metaphase cell (Fan et al. This approach has potential applications in personal genomics, single-cell genomics and statistical genetics. A method has been described for rapid and cost-effective long-range haplotyping (Kaper et al. Therefore, this strategy is suitable for haplotyping of a set of targeted regions as well as of the entire genome. The authors applied this method to determine allele-speciﬁc methylation patterns in a human genome and identify hundreds of differentially methylated regions that were previously unknown. Tools that facilitate access to phase information will lay the foundation for further advances throughout genomics and contribute to the development of personalized medicine. This model provides a powerful tool for elucidating the genetic variants of drug response and ultimately designing personalized medications based on each patient’s genetic constitution. These are described in more detail elsewhere (Jain 2015a) but some are described brieﬂy in the text following Table 2. Desirable characteristics of a genotyping technology are: (1) robust performance and accuracy across a variety of circumstances; (2) high-throughput performance; and (3) low cost. The ampliﬁed fragments are then attached by one strand to a solid surface and the non-immobilized strands are removed by standard denaturation and washing. Genotyping of the individual samples shows that the average margin of error in frequency estimate is ~4 % when pools are used. These ﬁndings clearly demonstrate the potential of pooling techniques and their associated technologies as an initial screen in the search for genetic associations. BeadArray Technology BeadArray technology (Illumina) combines ﬁber optic bundles and specially pre- pared beads that self-assemble into an array. Each ﬁber optic bundle contains thousands to millions of individual ﬁbers depending on the diameter of the bundle. Universal Free E-Book Store 64 2 Molecular Diagnostics in Personalized Medicine In a separate process, biosensors are created by afﬁxing a speciﬁc type of molecule to each of the billions of microscopic beads in a given batch. Several conventional methods are then used, including ﬂuorescence, optical density, electrophoresis and mass spectros- copy, to detect this single base extension. This technology allows researchers to perform “multiplex” assays (the ability to run assays that determine the presence or absence of multiple genetic mutations at the same time and on the same chip). Furthermore, naturally occurring polymorphisms, “hot spots” from the p53 gene, can clearly be distin- guished from wild type by using this method. The sensitivity may increase to a sufﬁcient level that enables direct pathogen detection. LabMap simultaneously measures all the analytes for any molecular relationship in one sample smaller than a single drop of blood. Advantages of this technology include the following: • All-in-one reactions save on labor, reagents and consumables • One instrument tests nucleic acids, immunoassay, enzymes, and receptor- ligands • Rapid kinetics lowers incubation times. One primer for the X allele is set to include X′ at the 3′ end (antisense), where X′ is the antisense of X, with the counterpart sense primer upstream. For the Y allele, a sense primer including Y at the 3′ end is set, with the antisense primer downstream. One common band and one speciﬁc band for each allele are ampliﬁed, which allows genotyping directly by electrophoresis. This method is exempliﬁed by application to the polymorphisms of beta-adrenoceptor 2 and interleukin 1B. The TaqMan probe, with its bound ﬂuorophore and quencher, hybridizes to a second target sequence within the ampliﬁed product. The reporter dye and quencher dye are separated, resulting in increased ﬂuores- cence of the reporter. This process occurs in every ampliﬁcation cycle and does not interfere with the exponential accumulation of product. This facilitates a rational screening of patients with cardiovascular disease for abnormalities in levels and metabolism of lipoproteins. Pyrosequencing enables genotyping of 96 samples within 10 min with an accu- racy of >99 %. Pyrosequencing technology offers a highly automated, rapid, and accurate method for identiﬁcation of cytochrome P450 alleles, which is suitable for pharmacogenomic research, as well as for routine assessment of patient genotypes. Abnormalities in mito- chondrial complex I, which is responsible for controlling mitochondrial function, have been implicated in a variety of diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunc- tion including schizophrenia. In some cases, the phenotype expressed by a gene provides a more accurate risk assessment. These results support the beneﬁt of a “level crossing” approach that includes intervening phenotypes in the study of complexly inherited disease.
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