Tutorial 1 – Basic concepts in signal analysis, power, energy and spectrum

Download: signals.pdf

20 comments on “Tutorial 1 – Basic concepts in signal analysis, power, energy and spectrum
  1. Dan Sandberg says:

    Thanks for the very readable tutorial.

    Small error I noticed: Figure 1.7 (“a 3-level signal”) has four levels.


  2. alexguosjtu says:

    the equation in (1.11) is not correct. it should be =(Px – Ux^2) rather than = (Px-Ux).

  3. Muhammad Khurram Kiyani says:

    As per my understanding Ux should not come in equation 1.11 because this equation depicts variance with zero mean.

  4. keerthi says:

    In page 5, it says “However, there is one requirement a carrier must meet: its frequency must be at least two times the highest frequency in the information signal.”

    Shouldn’t it be Sampling frequency for A/D Conversion and its reconstruction? I think it’s been confused with carrier frequency.

  5. Artak says:

    First sentence at the page 7: “If a voice signal is
    on to a carrier, what is the bandwidth
    of the modulated signal? It is still the

    It is usually not the case unless special methods are applied. E.G the bandwidth of simple AM modulated signal is twice the information bandwidth. Theoretically the FM modulated signal bandwidth is infinite (in practice it can be much wider than the information bandwidth)

  6. Artak says:

    At the end of page 7 : “If we add many periodic signals, with different frequencies and phases, the resulting signal is still periodic”.

    It is not always the case: if we add two sinusoidal signals which frequencies are 1KHz and sqrt(2) kHz then the result is not periodic.

  7. Ashish says:

    A very basic doubt (Please bear w/ me):
    Pg 2: “The process of gathering the amplitudes in specific levels is called quantization”
    Pg 3: “The processing of quantization of the discrete signal is called the A/D conversion”

    1. Then what’s diff between quantization and A/D conversion?
    i.e. discrete signal is available by sampling process. Then represent each sample using specific levels by quantization process. The o/p of this is a digital signal i.e. which step in this whole process should be called quantization vs A/D conversion?

    • Ashish says:

      I think the “sampling the signal” and then its “quantization” should be A/D conversion. Am I correct?

  8. vv says:

    Hi Charan,Thanks you for such an intuitive explanation.
    I am having hardtime understanding Baseband signal bandwidth. Say I am using raised cosine pulses for transmitting signals, how do you define the Bandwidth of this raised cosine pulse? If you say this has bandwidth “B”, does it mean that for generating a raised cosine pulse,we need complex sinusoids of different frequencies from 0 to B ?

  9. vv says:

    Hi Charan,
    When we say LTE supports bandwith of 20 Mhz, doeas it mean we support upto 20 Msps?

  10. Rishi says:

    On page 2: “a digital signal can take any number of values, usually in powers of two”. Can you give a real world example where a digital signal takes values other than the usual binary values ?

  11. tmt says:

    Ms Langton, I am grateful for having the opportunity to amble my way through this large resource of useful information on Signals and systems. It is something that I have often struggled with in my work on occasion, and I am not a natural mathematician. There was just the section on Laplace, Z- and discrete transforms that completely lost me in your Signals.pdf. I wondered if you could re-work it again perhaps from a different perspective, and with more information on those sections to make the knowledge ‘full’?
    I have looked at some enquiries made about typos and oversights in your work, do you provide news of updates to your tutorials on your site? It is not clear whether these things have been corrected, as I do not see replies to enquiries that mention whether you have corrected them or not.

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